Died on July 13

574 Pope John III Pope from 17 July 561 to his death in 574. He was born in Rome of a distinguished family. The Liber Pontificalis calls him a son of one Anastasius. His father bore the title illustris, more than likely being a vir illustris. According to the historian Evagrius, his birth name was Catelinus, but he took the name John on his accession
884 Huang Chao the leader of a major agrarian rebellion that, during the last decade of his life, seriously weakened the Tang dynasty.
939 Pope Leo VII Pope from 3 January 936 to his death in 939. He was preceded by Pope John XI and followed by Pope Stephen VIII. Leo VII's election to the papacy was secured by Alberic II of Spoleto, the ruler of Rome at the time. Alberic wanted to choose the pope so that the papacy would continue to yield to his authority. Leo was the priest of the church of Sixtus in Rome, thought to be a Benedictine monk. He had little ambition towards the papacy, but consented under pressure
1024 Henry II Holy Roman Emperor also known as Saint Henry, Obl. B. , was Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children. The Duke of Bavaria from 995, Henry became King of Germany following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III in 1002, was crowned King of Italy in 1004, and was crowned by the Pope as Emperor in 1014
1105 Rashi a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the Tanakh. Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise and lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginning students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study. His commentary on the Talmud, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud , has been included in every edition of the Talmud since its first printing by Daniel Bomberg in the 1520s. His commentary on Tanach — especially on the Chumash — is an indispensable aid to students of all levels. The latter commentary alone serves as the basis for more than 300 "supercommentaries" which analyze Rashi's choice of language and citations, penned by some of the greatest names in rabbinic literature
1205 Hubert Walter an influential royal adviser in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries in the positions of Chief Justiciar of England, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor. As chancellor, Walter began the keeping of the Charter Roll, a record of all charters issued by the chancery. Walter was not noted for his holiness in life or learning, but historians have judged him one of the most outstanding government ministers in English history
1357 Bartolus de Saxoferrato an Italian law professor and one of the most prominent continental jurists of Medieval Roman Law. He belonged to the school known as the commentators or postglossators. The admiration of later generations of civil lawyers is shown by the adage nemo bonus íurista nisi bartolista — no one is a good jurist unless he is a Bartolist
1380 Bertrand du Guesclin a Breton knight and French military commander during the Hundred Years' War. He was Constable of France from 1370 to his death. Well known for his Fabian strategy, he took part in six pitched battles and won the four in which he held command
1389 Roger de Clifford 5th Baron de Clifford the son of Robert de Clifford, 3rd Baron de Clifford , second son of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford , the founder of the northern branch of the family. His mother was Isabella , daughter of Maurice, 2nd Lord Berkeley. He succeeded his elder brother, Robert de Clifford, 4th Baron de Clifford in 1350, on which day he made proof of his age
1399 Peter Parler a German architect, best known for building Saint Vitus Cathedral and Charles Bridge in Prague, where he lived from about 1356.
1402 Jianwen Emperor the second emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. His personal name was Zhu Yunwen. The era name Jianwen meant "Establishing Civility" and represented a sharp change in tone from his grandfather's era of "Great Martiality". His reign did not last long: an attempt to restrain his powerful uncles led to the Jingnan rebellion and usurpation by the Yongle Emperor. Although the new emperor presented a charred body as Zhu Yunwen's, rumors circulated for decades that the young emperor had escaped his burning palace in a monk's robe. This rumor is credited by some as having prompted Zheng He's voyages of exploration to the Indian Ocean. Some historians believe that Jianwen Emperor did indeed escape Nanjing and the Ming official history texts were altered by officials in the Qing dynasty to please their emperor
1412 Johannes Ciconia a composer and music theorist of the late Middle Ages. He was born in Liège, but worked most of his adult life in Italy, particularly in the service of the papal chapel and at Padua cathedral
1501 Margaret of Thuringia a German noblewoman, Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
1551 John Wallop an English soldier and diplomat who belonged to an old Hampshire family from the town of Farleigh Wallop.
1568 William Turner (naturalist) an English divine and reformer, a physician and a natural historian. He studied medicine in Italy, and was a friend of the great Swiss naturalist, Conrad Gessner. He was an early herbalist and ornithologist, and it is in these fields that the most interest lies today
1617 Adam Wenceslaus Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn from 1579 until his death.
1620 William Louis Count of Nassau-Dillenburg Count of Nassau-Dillenburg from 1606 to 1620, and stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe.
1621 Albert VII Archduke of Austria the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621. Prior to this, he had been a cardinal, archbishop of Toledo, viceroy of Portugal and Governor General of the Habsburg Netherlands. He succeeded his brother Matthias as reigning archduke of Lower and Upper Austria, but abdicated in favor of Ferdinand II the same year, making it the shortest reign in Austrian history
1626 Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester a statesman of Elizabethan and Jacobean England. He was also a patron of the arts and an interesting poet. His mother, Mary Sidney née Dudley, was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I and a sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, an advisor and favourite of the Queen
1628 Robert Shirley an English traveller and adventurer, younger brother of Sir Anthony Shirley and of the adventurer Sir Thomas. He is mostly famous for his help modernising and improving the Persian Safavid army according to the British model, by the request of Shah Abbas the Great. This proved to be highly successful, as from then on the Safavids proved to be an equal force to their arch rival, the Ottoman Empire
1629 Caspar Bartholin the Elder born at Malmø, Denmark and was a polymath, finally accepting a professorship in medicine at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1613. He later taught theology at the same university
1683 Arthur Capell 1st Earl of Essex sometimes spelled Capel, was an English statesman.
1693 Hendrik Trajectinus Count of Solms a Dutch lieutenant-general.
1755 Edward Braddock also known in Europe as the Seven Years' War. He is generally best remembered for his command of a disastrous expedition against the French-occupied Ohio Country then in western Virginia or Pennsylvania in 1755, in which he lost his life
1760 Conrad Weiser a Pennsylvania German pioneer, interpreter and effective diplomat between the Pennsylvania Colony and Native Americans. He was a farmer, soldier, monk, tanner and judge. He contributed as an emissary in councils between Native Americans and the colonies, especially Pennsylvania, during the 18th century's tensions of the French and Indian War
1761 Tokugawa Ieshige the ninth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
1762 James Bradley an English astronomer and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmund Halley. He is best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light , and the nutation of the Earth's axis. These discoveries were called "the most brilliant and useful of the century" by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, historian of astronomy, mathematical astronomer and director of the Paris Observatory, in his history of astronomy in the 18th century , because "It is to these two discoveries by Bradley that we owe the exactness of modern astronomy..... This double service assures to their discoverer the most distinguished place above the greatest astronomers of all ages and all countries."
1775 Louis Charles Count of Eu a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his Maîtresse-en-titre Françoise-Athénaïs de Montespan. He was a member of the legitimised house of Bourbon du Maine. He was the last surviving member of the house
1777 Guillaume Coustou the Younger a French sculptor.
1785 Stephen Hopkins (politician) a governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, a Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. From a prominent Rhode Island family, Hopkins was a grandson of William Hopkins who served the colony for 40 years as Deputy, Assistant, Speaker of the House of Deputies, and Major. His great grandfather, Thomas Hopkins, was an original settler of Providence, sailing from England in 1635 with his first cousin, Benedict Arnold, who became the first governor of the Rhode Island colony under the Royal Charter of 1663
1789 Victor de Riqueti marquis de Mirabeau a French economist of the Physiocratic school. He was the father of great Honoré, Comte de Mirabeau and is, in distinction, often referred to as the elder Mirabeau
1793 Jean-Paul Marat a physician, political theorist and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism became renowned for its fierce tone, uncompromising stance toward the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, and advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society
1807 Johann III Bernoulli grandson of Johann Bernoulli, and son of Johann II Bernoulli. He was known around the world as a child prodigy. He studied at Basel and at Neuchâtel, and when thirteen years of age took the degree of doctor in philosophy. When he was fourteen, he got the degree of master of jurisprudence. At nineteen he was appointed astronomer royal of Berlin. A year later, he reorganized the astronomical observatory at the Berlin Academy. Some years after, he visited Germany, France and England, and subsequently Italy, Russia and Poland. His travel accounts were of great cultural and historical important. He wrote about Kashubians
1807 Henry Benedict Stuart a Roman Catholic Cardinal, as well as the fourth and final Jacobite heir to claim the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland publicly. Unlike his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, and brother, Charles Edward Stuart, Henry made no effort to seize the throne. After Charles's death in January 1788 the Papacy did not recognise Henry as the lawful ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland, but referred to him as the Cardinal Duke of York
1813 Johann Friedrich Peter an American composer of German origin. He emigrated to the United States in 1770, and for a time served as an organist and violinist with Unity of the Brethren congregations in North Carolina and Pennsylvania. As a composer he wrote mostly anthems; also included in his output are six string quintets for two violins, two violas, and a violoncello, among the earliest examples of chamber music known by a North American composer. The six string quintets, performed by the American Moravian Chamber Ensemble, were recorded and published in 1997 on New World Records 80507-2
1831 James Northcote an English painter.
1840 Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the first wife of King Christian VIII from 1806 until 1810, before he became King of Denmark. She was a daughter of Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the seventh of the couple's surviving children born at Ludwigslust's court
1842 Prince Ferdinand Philippe Duke of Orléans the eldest son of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans and future King Louis Philippe Born in exile in his mother's native Sicily, he was their heir to the House of Orléans from birth. Following his father's succession as King of the French in 1830, he became the Prince Royal and subsequently Duke of Orléans , the title by which he is best known. Dying in 1842, he never succeeded his father nor saw the collapse of the July Monarchy and subsequent exile of his family to England
1850 Cyprian Kreutz a general of the Russian Imperial Army known for his service in the Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising.
1854 Abbas I of Egypt the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan. He was a son of Tusun Pasha, and a grandson of Muhammad Ali, founder of the reigning Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt and Sudan. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him: "igoted and sensual, he did much to undo the progress made under Muhammad Ali."
1854 José María Vargas the President of Venezuela from 1835–1836.
1863 John S. Bowen a career United States Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. He fought at the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, and the Vicksburg Campaign. He is often said to have died just as his abilities were gaining attention
1864 Henryk Dembiński a Polish engineer, traveler and general.
1869 Henry Labouchere 1st Baron Taunton a prominent British Whig and Liberal Party politician of the mid-19th century.
1870 Johan Fredrik Eckersberg a Norwegian painter most noted for his landscapes. Eckersberg was a prominent figure in the transition from Romanticism to Realism in 18th century Norwegian art, both as an artistic painter and a teacher at his own art school in Oslo
1870 Christian Albrecht Jensen a Danish portrait painter who was active during the Golden Age of Danish Painting in the first half of the 19th century. Painting more than 400 portraits over the course of his career, he depicted most of the leading figures of the Danish Golden Age, including the writer Hans Christian Andersen, the painter Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, the physicist Hans Christian Ørsted and the theologian F. Grundtvig
1872 Edme-Jean Leclaire a French economist and businessman. He developed an early system of employee profit-sharing
1877 Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler a German theologian and politician who served as Bishop of Mainz. His social teachings became influential during the papacy of Leo XIII and his encyclical Rerum Novarum
1881 John C. Pemberton a career United States Army officer who fought in the Seminole Wars and with distinction during the Mexican–American War. He also served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Siege of Vicksburg in the summer of 1863
1883 Ranavalona II Queen of Madagascar from 1868 to 1883, succeeding Queen Rasoherina. She is best remembered for Christianizing the royal court during her reign