July 13 events in history

1174 William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England
1249 Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots
1260 The Livonian Order suffers its greatest defeat in the 13th century in the Battle of Durbe against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1490 John of Kastav finishes a cycle of frescoes in the Holy Trinity Church in Hrastovlje (now southwestern Slovenia)
1558 Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul de Thermes at Gravelines
1573 Eighty Years' War: The Siege of Haarlem ends after seven months
1643 English Civil War: Battle of Roundway Down – In England, Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, heavily defeats the Parliamentarian forces led by Sir William Waller
1787 The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery
1793 Journalist and French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a member of the opposing political faction
1794 The Battle of the Vosges is fought between French forces and those of Prussia and Austria
1814 The Carabinieri, the national gendarmerie of Italy, is established
1830 The General Assembly's Institution, now the Scottish Church College, one of the pioneering institutions that ushered the Bengal Renaissance, is founded by Alexander Duff and Raja Ram Mohan Roy, in Calcutta, India
1854 In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General José María Yáñez stops the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon
1863 New York City draft riots: In New York, New York, opponents of conscription begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history
1878 Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire
1905 The verdict in the six-month long Smarthavicharam trial of Kuriyedath Thathri is pronounced, leading to the excommunication of 65 men of various castes
1919 The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight
1923 The Hollywood Sign is officially dedicated in the hills above Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. It originally reads "Hollywoodland " but the four last letters are dropped after renovation in 1949
1941 World War II: Montenegrins begin a popular uprising against the Axis powers (Trinaestojulski ustanak)
1962 In an unprecedented action, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismisses seven members of his Cabinet, marking the effective end of the National Liberals as a distinct force within British politics
1973 Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the "Nixon tapes" to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break in
1977 New York, New York, amidst a period of financial and social turmoil experiences an electrical blackout lasting nearly 24 hours that leads to widespread fires and looting
1977 Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ethiopian-Somali War
1985 The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London, England, United Kingdom and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as well as other venues such as Sydney, Australia and Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union
1985 Vice President George Bush becomes the Acting President for the day when President Ronald Reagan undergoes surgery to remove polyps from his colon
2003 French DGSE personnel abort an operation to rescue Íngrid Betancourt from FARC rebels in Colombia, causing a political scandal when details are leaked to the press
2013 George Zimmerman is found not guilty in the shooting of Trayvon Martin