Born on July 14

664 Eorcenberht of Kent king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Kent from 640 until his death, succeeding his father Eadbald.
926 Emperor Murakami the 62nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1294 Obizzo III d'Este Marquis of Ferrara the Marquess of Ferrara from 1317 until his death.
1454 Poliziano an Italian classical scholar and poet of the Florentine Renaissance. His scholarship was instrumental in the divergence of Renaissance Latin from medieval norms and for developments in philology. His nickname, Poliziano, by which he is chiefly identified to the present day, was derived from the Latin name of his birthplace, Montepulciano
1575 Augustus Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the unified principality of Anhalt. From 1603, he was ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau
1602 Cardinal Mazarin an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. He was a noted collector of art and jewels, particularly diamonds, and he bequeathed the "Mazarin diamonds" to Louis XIV in 1661, some of which remain in the collection of the Louvre museum in Paris. His personal library was the origin of the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris
1608 George Goring Lord Goring an English Royalist soldier. He was known by the courtesy title Lord Goring as the eldest son of the 1st Earl of Norwich
1610 Ferdinando II de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. He was the eldest child of Cosimo II de' Medici and Maria Maddalena of Austria. His 49 year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline. He married Vittoria della Rovere, with whom he had two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, his eventual successor, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, a cardinal
1634 Pasquier Quesnel a French Jansenist theologian.
1671 Jacques d'Allonville a French astronomer and mathematician.
1675 Claude Alexandre de Bonneval a French army officer who later went into the service of the Ottoman Empire, eventually converting to Islam and becoming known as Humbaracı Ahmet Paşa.
1676 Caspar Abel a German theologian, historian and poet.
1696 William Oldys an English antiquarian and bibliographer.
1708 Ivan Iskra a colonel of the Poltava. Iskra belonged to the anti-Hetmanate coalition led by Vasily Kochubey. In late 1707, Kochubey and Iskra delivered a letter to the Tsar's court that accused Ivan Mazepa of initiating talks with Stanislaus Leszczynski of Poland and Charles XII of Sweden
1721 John Douglas (bishop of Salisbury) a Scottish scholar and Anglican bishop.
1743 Gavrila Derzhavin arguably one of the greatest Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman. Although his works are traditionally considered literary classicism, his best verse is rich with antitheses and conflicting sounds in a way reminiscent of John Donne and other metaphysical poets
1755 Michel de Beaupuy a French general of the Revolution.
1762 Joseph Lakanal a French politician, and an original member of the Institut de France.
1771 Karl Rudolphi credited with being the "father of helminthology".
1776 Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon during the first Empire and Restoration, eventually rising to the rank of brigadier general. He participated in the Battle of Wagram, in the course of which he lost a leg, which was replaced by a wooden prosthesis; hence his nickname jambe de bois , and was assigned to the defense of the Château de Vincennes in 1812. Vincennes was then an arsenal containing 52 000 new rifles, more than 100 field guns and many tons of powder, bullets, canonballs... A tempting prize for the Sixth Coalition marching on Paris in 1814 in the aftermath of the Battle of the Nations. However Daumesnil faced down the allies and replied with the famous words "I shall surrender Vincennes when I get my leg back". With only 300 men under his command, he resisted to the Coalition until king Louis XVIII of France ordered to leave the fortress
1777 Tanomura Chikuden a Japanese painter of the Edo period. He is known for his depictions of nature, often melancholic in style
1785 Mordecai Manuel Noah an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. He was born in a family of Portuguese Sephardic ancestry. He was the most important Jewish lay leader in New York in the pre-Civil War period, and the first Jew born in the United States to reach national prominence
1787 Józef Bonawentura Załuski a Polish General Officer and diarist, and participant in the Napoleonic Wars of 1808–1814.
1793 George Green a British mathematical physicist who wrote An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism. The essay introduced several important concepts, among them a theorem similar to the modern Green's theorem, the idea of potential functions as currently used in physics, and the concept of what are now called Green's functions. Green was the first person to create a mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism and his theory formed the foundation for the work of other scientists such as James Clerk Maxwell, William Thomson, and others. His work on potential theory ran parallel to that of Carl Friedrich Gauss
1800 Jean-Baptiste Dumas a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities. He also developed a method for the analysis of nitrogen in compounds
1801 Johannes Peter Müller a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.
1804 John Frederick Lewis an Orientalist English painter. He specialized in Oriental and Mediterranean scenes and often worked in exquisitely detailed watercolour. He was the son of Frederick Christian Lewis , engraver and landscape-painter
1804 Ludwig von Benedek an Austrian general of Hungarian descent, best known for commanding the imperial army in 1866 in the Battle of Königgrätz against the Prussian Army.
1804 Alfred Malherbe a French magistrate and amateur naturalist born in Mauritius to family originally from Metz. He was the administrator of the Museum of Metz
1812 Johann Adam Heckel a German instrument maker. He founded the family firm in Wiesbaden-Biebrich in 1831, and became the foremost German bassoon maker, making many improvements to the instrument. His company, Wilhelm Heckel GmbH, is still regarded as one of the top makers of bassoons in the world today. The company also makes contrabassoons and heckelphones
1812 Buenaventura Báez the President of the Dominican Republic for five nonconsecutive terms. He is known for attempting to annex the Dominican Republic to other countries on multiple occasions. His son Ramón Báez was briefly president in 1914
1816 Arthur de Gobineau a French aristocrat, novelist and man of letters who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races. Gobineau is credited as being the father of modern racial demography. Since the late 20th century, his works are considered early examples of scientific racism
1818 Nathaniel Lyon noted for his actions in the state of Missouri at the beginning of the conflict. Some credit his quick action and hard line Unionism for stopping the Missouri secession movement. Others question his influence peddling and his role in events such as the Camp Jackson Affair, which inflamed many Missourians on the secession issue
1820 Sigismund Koelle a German missionary, and pioneer scholar of African languages.
1825 Heinrich VII Prince Reuss of Köstritz a German diplomat.
1827 Robert L. J. Ellery an English-Australian astronomer and public servant; Victorian government astronomer for 42 years.
1828 Jervis McEntee an American painter of the Hudson River School. He is a somewhat lesser-known figure of the 19th-century American art world, but was the close friend and traveling companion of several of the important Hudson River School artists. Aside from his paintings, McEntee's journals are an enduring legacy, documenting the life of a New York painter during and after the Gilded Age
1829 Edward Benson (bishop) the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1883 until his death.
1830 Henry Bird (chess player) an English chess player, and also an outstanding author and accountant. He wrote a book titled Chess History and Reminiscences, and another titled An Analysis of Railways in the United Kingdom
1831 Alexander Hilferding a Russian linguist and folklorist of German descent who collected some 318 bylinas in the Russian North. A native of Warsaw, he assisted Nikolay Milyutin in reforming the administration of Congress Poland. In the late 1850s, he was a Russian diplomatic agent in Bosnia; he published several books about the country and its folklore. Hilferding was elected into the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1856. He died of typhoid while collecting folk songs in Kargopol, in the north of European Russia, and was later reburied in the Novodevichy Cemetery, Petersburg. Hilferding's collection of Slavonic manuscripts is preserved in the Russian National Library
1832 Lucien Quélet a French mycologist and naturalist who discovered several species and was the founder of the Société mycologique de France, a society devoted to mycological studies.
1841 Manuel Candamo President of Peru from September 8, 1903 until May 7, the following year, when he died in office.
1844 Smith Streeter an American roque player who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics. He was born in Ontario, Canada
1847 Gustav Eberlein a German sculptor, painter and writer.
1850 Karl Wilhelm von Dalla Torre an Austrian taxonomist, entomologist and botanist.
1854 Alexander Kopylov an Imperial Russian composer and violinist.
1854 Mahendranath Gupta a disciple of Ramakrishna—a 19th-century mystic and the author of Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita,a Bengali classic. He was also a teacher to Paramahansa Yogananda, a famous 20th century yogi, guru and philosopher
1859 Willy Hess (violinist) a German violinist and violin teacher.
1860 Owen Wister an American writer and "father" of western fiction. He is best remembered for writing The Virginian, although he never wrote about the West afterwards
1862 Gustav Klimt an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d'art. Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism. In addition to his figurative works, which include allegories and portraits, he painted landscapes. Among the artists of the Vienna Secession, Klimt was the most influenced by Japanese art and its methods