Died on July 14

1086 Toirdelbach Ua Briain King of Munster and effectively High King of Ireland. A grandson of Brian Bóruma, Toirdelbach was the son of Tadc mac Briain who was killed in 1023 by his half-brother Donnchad mac Briain
1223 Philip II of France a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1180 to 1223, and the first to be called by that title. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks but from 1190 onward Philip styled himself king of France. The son of Louis VII and of his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed "God-given" because he was the first son of Louis VII and born late in his father's life
1242 Hōjō Yasutoki the third shikken of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. He strengthened the political system of the Hōjō regency
1262 Richard de Clare 6th Earl of Gloucester son of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal. On his father's death, when he became Earl of Gloucester , he was entrusted first to the guardianship of Hubert de Burgh. On Hubert's fall, his guardianship was given to Peter des Roches ; and in 1235 to Gilbert, Earl Marshall
1277 Humbert of Romans a French Dominican friar who served as the fifth Master General of the Order of Preachers from 1254 to 1263.
1437 Adolf Duke of Jülich-Berg the first Duke of the combined duchies of Jülich and Berg. He was the son of William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg and Anna of the Palatinate
1484 Federico I Gonzaga Marquess of Mantua marquess of Mantua from 1478 to 1484, as well as a condottiero.
1486 Margaret of Denmark Queen of Scotland Queen of Scotland from 1469 to 1486 as the wife of King James III. She was the daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and Dorothea of Brandenburg
1514 Christopher Bainbridge an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of York from 1508 until his death
1551 Henry Brandon 2nd Duke of Suffolk an English nobleman, the son of the 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his fourth wife, the suo jure 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.
1551 Charles Brandon 3rd Duke of Suffolk the son of the 1st Duke of Suffolk and the suo jure 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.
1575 Richard Taverner best known for his Bible translation, The Most Sacred Bible whiche is the holy scripture, conteyning the old and new testament, translated into English, and newly recognised with great diligence after most faythful exemplars by Rychard Taverner, commonly known as Taverner's Bible.
1584 Balthasar Gérard the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William I of Orange. He killed William I in Delft on 10 July 1584, by shooting him twice with a pistol, and was afterwards tried, convicted, and gruesomely executed
1614 Camillus de Lellis an Italian priest who founded a religious Order dedicated to the care of the sick.
1623 William Byrd an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard , and consort music. He produced sacred music for use in Anglican services, although he himself became a Roman Catholic in later life and wrote Catholic sacred music as well
1660 Maria Gonzaga Duchess of Montferrat an Italian princess of the House of Gonzaga: she was Regent in Mantua during the minority of her son from 1637 until 1647, and reigning sovereign duchess of Montferrat from 1612 until 1660.
1662 Camilla Faà an Italian noblewoman who was married secretly, briefly and morganatically to Ferdinando the Gonzaga Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat. Repudiated by her husband she became a nun and the sixteen page memoir which she wrote in 1622 at the behest of her Mother Superior has been described as the first prose autobiography written by an Italian woman. Her story was the subject of Paolo Giacometti’s historical drama Camilla Faa da Casale, first performed at the Teatro Nuovo, Florence on 29 October 1846
1671 Méric Casaubon a French-English classical scholar. Although biographical dictionaries commonly accentuate his name to Méric, he himself did not do so
1681 Agafya Grushetskaya a Russian noble, Tsaritsa of Russia as the first spouse of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and hails from the Grushetsky family.
1704 Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689. She allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Galitzine, to install herself during the minority of her brother Ivan V and half-brother Peter Her regency was carried out with a firm and heavy fist. She did not hesitate to use violent tactics to promote her agenda. The activity of this "bogatyr-tsarevna" was all the more extraordinary, as upper-class Muscovite women, confined to the upper-floor terem and veiled and guarded in public, invariably were kept aloof from any open involvement in politics
1723 Claude Fleury a French ecclesiastical historian.
1742 Richard Bentley an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge
1766 František Maxmilián Kaňka a Czech architect and builder.
1774 James O'Hara 2nd Baron Tyrawley an Irish officer in the British Army. After serving as a junior officer in Spain and the Low Countries during the War of the Spanish Succession, he went on to become British ambassador to Lisbon establishing a close relationship with King John V there. He undertook a tour as British ambassador to Saint Petersburg before becoming Governor of Gibraltar where he set about improving the fortifications. He was briefly commander of British troops in Portugal during the Seven Years' War but was replaced within a few months. During his military career he was colonel of eight different regiments
1780 Charles Batteux a French philosopher and writer on aesthetics.
1788 Johann Gottfried Müthel a German composer and noted keyboard virtuoso. Along with C.P.E. Bach, he represented the Sturm und Drang style of composition
1789 Jacques de Flesselles a French public servant and one of the first victims of the French Revolution.
1790 Ernst Gideon von Laudon an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of the Kingdom of Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković
1791 Joseph Gaertner a German botanist, best known for his work on seeds, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum.
1793 Jacques Cathelineau a French Vendéan insurrection leader during the French Revolution. His grandson, Henri de Cathelineau, was an officer in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War
1800 Lorenzo Mascheroni an Italian mathematician.
1808 John Wilkinson (industrialist) an English industrialist who pioneered the use and manufacture of cast iron and cast-iron goods in the Industrial Revolution. He was the inventor of a precision boring machine that could bore cast iron cylinders such as those used in steam engines, which bored for James Watt's engines. His boring machine has been called the first machine tool. He also developed a blowing device for blast furnaces that allowed higher furnace temperatures, increasing their capacity
1809 Nicodemus the Hagiorite a saint of the Greek Orthodox Church. He was an ascetic monk, mystic, theologian, and philosopher. His life's work was a revival of traditional Christian practices and patristic literature. He wrote ascetic prayer literature and influenced the rediscovery of Hesychasm, a method of contemplative prayer from the Byzantine period. He is most famous for his work with Macarius of Corinth on the anthology of monastic spiritual writings known as The Philokalia. He was recognised as a saint by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople in 1955
1812 Christian Gottlob Heyne a German classical scholar and archaeologist as well as long-time director of the Göttingen State and University Library.
1814 James Lovell (Continental Congress) an American educator and statesman from Boston, Massachusetts. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress from 1777 to 1782. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation
1816 Francisco de Miranda a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, in 1816, died in a Spanish prison. Within fourteen years of his death, however, most of Spanish America was independent
1817 Germaine de Staël a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. She was one of Napoleon's principal opponents. Celebrated for her conversational eloquence, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times. Her works, both critical and fictional, made their mark on the history of European Romanticism
1824 Agustín de Betancourt a prominent Spanish-Canarian engineer, who worked in Spain, France and Russia. His work ranged from steam engines and balloons to structural engineering and urban planning. As an educator, Betancourt founded and managed the Spanish Corps of Engineers and the Saint Petersburg Institute of Communications Engineers. As an urban planner and construction manager, Betancourt supervised planning and construction in Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt, Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities
1824 Kamehameha II the second king of the Kingdom of Hawaii. His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu ʻIolani. It was lengthened to Kalani Kaleiʻaimoku o Kaiwikapu o Laʻamea i Kauikawekiu Ahilapalapa Kealiʻi Kauinamoku o Kahekili Kalaninui i Mamao ʻIolani i Ka Liholiho when he took the throne
1827 Augustin-Jean Fresnel a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally
1834 Edmond-Charles Genêt the French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
1843 Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel a Spanish General and statesman. He was born in the Basque Country of Spain, at Vitoria-Gasteiz, in 1770. Álava holds the distinction of having been present at both Trafalgar and Waterloo, fighting against the British on the former and with them on the latter. Alava served as a naval aide-de-camp during the time of Spain's alliance with France but switched sides following Napoleon's invasion of his homeland in 1808. Later he joined the headquarters of the British Peninsular Army as a military attaché and became a close friend of the Duke of Wellington. During the Waterloo Campaign in 1815, Alava was the Spanish envoy to the court of King William I of the Netherlands, which allowed him to be at Wellington's side during the battle
1850 August Neander a German theologian and church historian.
1854 Louis-Pierre Norblin a French musician. He taught cello at the Paris Conservatoire, where his students included Charles Lebouc. His father was Jan Piotr Norblin
1856 Edward Vernon Utterson a British lawyer, literary antiquary, collector and editor. He was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, one of the original members of the Roxburghe Club, a member of the Athenaeum Club, Camden Society and Royal Society of Arts, Recorder of Chichester and a Trustee of the Royal Victoria Yacht Club. He went on to become one of the Six Clerks in Chancery, a position which he kept until his retirement on the abolition of the post in 1842, and also founded the Beldornie Press
1859 Petrus Borel a French writer of the Romantic movement.
1861 Frédéric de Lafresnaye a French ornithologist and collector.
1875 Guillaume-Henri Dufour a Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer. He served under Napoleon I and held the office of General to lead the Swiss forces to victory against the Sonderbund. He presided over the First Geneva Convention which established the International Red Cross. He was founder and president of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography from 1838 to 1865
1876 Thomas Hazlehurst (chapel builder) known nationally as "the Chapel Builder" and more locally as "the Prince of Methodism" or "the Prince of the Wesleyans". He was given these titles because of his generosity in paying wholly or largely for the building of some 12 chapels and three schools in the area of Runcorn, Widnes and the villages in north Cheshire. His father, also called Thomas, had founded a profitable soap and alkali manufacturing business, Hazlehurst & Sons, in Runcorn in 1816
1876 Sidney Rigdon a leader during the early history of the Latter Day Saint movement.