July 14 events in history

756 An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Xuanzong flees the capital Chang'an as An Lushan's forces advance toward the city
1223 Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Philip II of France
1769 An expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà establishes a base in California and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California)
1771 Foundation of the Mission San Antonio de Padua in modern California by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra
1789 French Revolution: Citizens of Paris storm the Bastille
1789 Alexander Mackenzie finally completes his journey to the mouth of the great river he hoped would take him to the Pacific, but which turns out to flow into the Arctic Ocean. Later named after him, the Mackenzie is the second-longest river system in North America
1790 French Revolution: Citizens of Paris celebrate the unity of the French people and the national reconciliation in the Fête de la Fédération
1791 The Priestley Riots drive Joseph Priestley, a supporter of the French Revolution, out of Birmingham, England
1798 The Sedition Act becomes law in the United States making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government
1853 Opening of the first major US world's fair, the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in New York City
1865 First ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper and party, four of whom die on the descent
1874 The Chicago Fire of 1874 burns down 47 acres of the city, destroying 812 buildings, killing 20, and resulting in the fire insurance industry demanding municipal reforms from Chicago's city council
1877 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 begins in Martinsburg, West Virginia, US, when Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers have their wages cut for the second time in a year
1881 Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner
1900 Armies of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion
1902 The Campanile in St. Mark's Square, Venice collapses, also demolishing the loggetta
1911 Harry Atwood, an exhibition pilot for the Wright Brothers lands his airplane at the South Lawn of the White House. He is later awarded a Gold medal from U.S. President William Howard Taft for this feat
1916 Start of the Battle of Delville Wood as an action within the Battle of the Somme, which was to last until 3 September 1916
1928 New Vietnam Revolutionary Party is founded in Huế amid providing some of the communist party's most important leaders in its early years
1933 The Nazi eugenics begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring that calls for the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders
1933 Gleichschaltung: In Germany, all political parties are outlawed except the Nazi Party
1943 In Diamond, Missouri, the George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African American
1948 Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the Italian Communist Party, is shot and wounded near the Italian Parliament
1950 Korean War: North Korean troops initiate the Battle of Taejon
1957 Rawya Ateya takes her seat in the National Assembly of Egypt, thereby becoming the first female parliamentarian in the Arab world
1958 Iraqi Revolution: In Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who becomes the nation's new leader
1960 Jane Goodall arrives at the Gombe Stream Reserve in present-day Tanzania to begin her famous study of chimpanzees in the wild
1965 The Mariner 4 flyby of Mars takes the first close-up photos of another planet
1969 The United States $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills are officially withdrawn from circulation
1969 Football War: After Honduras loses a soccer match against El Salvador, riots break out in Honduras against Salvadoran migrant workers
1976 Capital punishment is abolished in Canada
1987 Montreal, Canada, is hit by a series of thunderstorms causing the Montreal Flood of 1987
1992 386BSD is released by Lynne Jolitz and William Jolitz beginning the Open Source Operating System Revolution. Linus Torvalds releases his Linux soon afterwards
2000 A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth
2002 French President Jacques Chirac escapes an assassination attempt unscathed during Bastille Day celebrations
2003 In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an article critical of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Washington Post columnist Robert Novak reveals that Wilson's wife Valerie Plame is a CIA "operative"