Born on July 15

1249 Heinrich von Hohenlohe the seventh Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving between 1244 and 1249. He was the son of one of the richest and most powerful feudal lords in Württemberg and had four brothers and one sister
1273 Ewostatewos an important religious leader of the Ethiopian Church. He was a forceful advocate for the Ethiopian form of observing the Sabbath. His followers, known as the House of Ewostatewos , have been a historic force in the Ethiopian church
1353 Vladimir the Bold the most famous prince of Serpukhov. His moniker alludes to his many military exploits committed in the wars waged by his cousin, Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow
1369 Antonio Correr the son of Filippo Correr and Cassandra Venier. He was Cardinal-nephew of Gregory XII, Pope of the Roman Obedience in the period of the Great Western Schism, eldest brother of Filippo Correr. He was also cousin of Pope Eugene IV, son of his father Filippo's sister Bariola and Angelo Condulmer. His last name is listed also as Corrario and Corraro
1471 Eskender Emperor of Ethiopia , and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the son of Emperor Baeda Maryam I by Romna
1478 Barbara Jagiellon a princess of Poland and a Duchess of Saxony.
1573 Inigo Jones the first significant British architect of the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings. He left his mark on London by single buildings, such as the Banqueting House, Whitehall, and in area design for Covent Garden square which became a model for future developments in the West End. He made major contributions to stage design by his work as theatrical designer for several dozen masques, most by royal command and many in collaboration with Ben Jonson
1602 John Bradshaw (judge) an English judge. He is most notable for his role President of the High Court of Justice for the trial of King Charles I and as the first Lord President of the Council of State of the English Commonwealth
1606 Rembrandt a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting
1613 Gu Yanwu a Chinese philologist and geographer. He spent his youth during the Manchu conquest of China in anti-Manchu activities after the Ming Dynasty had been overthrown. He never served the Qing Dynasty. Instead, he traveled throughout the country and devoted himself to studies
1626 Hedevig Ulfeldt the daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and Kirsten Munk. She was the twin of her sister Christiane Sehested. She shared the title Countess of Schleswig-Holstein with her mother and siblings
1631 Jens Juel (diplomat) a Danish diplomat and statesman of great influence at the Danish court who was created Baron and granted Juellinge in 1672. He was the brother of Admiral Niels Juel
1638 Giovanni Buonaventura Viviani an Italian composer and violinist. He worked in the court at Innsbruck as a violinist at least between 1656 and 1660. Between 1672 to 1676 he was director of the court music at Innsbruck, which, after the extinction of the Tyrolean Habsburgs, had come under the control of the emperor. Although in publications of 1678 Viviani still described himself as holding this position, it seems more likely that he was in fact in Venice working on his arrangement of Francesco Cavalli’s Scipione affricano and his own opera Astiage, which were both performed in Venice that year. Also that year, Viviani directed an oratorio at the Oratorio di San Marcello in Rome with Arcangelo Corelli and Bernardo Pasquini. He was probably elevated to the nobility in the same year, since he subsequently designated himself ‘Nobile del Sacro Romano Imperio’. Between 1678 and 1679 and 1681 and 1682 he was in Naples as director of a troupe of opera singers, and while he was there he performed some of his own operas and oratorios. In 1686 he was maestro di cappella to the Prince of Bisignano. From January 1687 to December 1692 he was maestro di cappella of Pistoia Cathedral
1646 Frederick I Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. He was the fourth but eldest surviving son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg and Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg
1704 August Gottlieb Spangenberg a German theologian and minister, and a bishop of the Moravian Brethren. As successor of Count Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, he helped develop international missions, as well as stabilize the theology and organization of the German Moravian Church
1718 Alexander Roslin a Swedish portrait painter who worked in Scania, Bayreuth, Paris, Italy, and Petersburg, primarily for members of aristocratic families. He combined insightful psychological portrayal with a skillful representation of fabrics and jewels. In his choice of style and lustrous, shimmering colors Alexander Roslin exemplifies Rococo. He lived in France from 1752 until 1793, a period that spanned most of his career. Rococo artists opted for a more jocular, elegant and ornate style, characterized by lightness, elegance and graceful approach to art and architecture. The painting by Roslin depicting Jeanne Sophie de Vignerot du Plessis, Countess of Egmont Pignatelli, was bought by the Minneapolis Institute of Art in 2006 for US$ 3 million
1737 Princess Louise of France (1737–1787) the youngest of the ten children of Louis XV and his wife, Maria Leszczyńska. As a daughter of the king, she held the rank of a fille de France. From 1740 she was known as Madame Louise
1738 Jacques-André Naigeon a French artist, atheist philosopher, editor and man of letters best known for his contributions to the Encyclopédie and for reworking Baron d'Holbach's and Diderot's manuscripts.
1740 Archibald Hamilton 9th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish peer and politician.
1745 Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine a French-born painter, draughtsman, engraver, drawing artist and caricaturist. From 1774 to 1804 he resided in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he obtained citizenship
1747 Teresa Margaret of the Sacred Heart O.C.D. was an Italian Discalced Carmelite nun. During her brief life of quiet service in the monastery, she came to be revered for her mystical gifts. She has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
1750 Francis Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He is a patrilineal ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, King Philippe of Belgium and Simeon Sakskoburggotski, former tsar and prime minister of Bulgaria
1764 Vladimir Mikhailovich Yashvil a Russian general of Georgian noble origin personally involved in the assassination of Paul I of Russia. He was a brother of General Lev Yashvil
1777 Robert Henrik Rehbinder the Secretary of State for the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1811 and 1841. He was one of the highest officials in the Grand Duchy and he played a significant part in creating the autonomous role of Finland at the Diet of Porvoo
1777 Jean-Jacques Germain Pelet-Clozeau joined the French army in 1800 and soon became a topographic engineer. He saw much service during the Napoleonic Wars. Asked to serve on the staff of Marshal André Masséna in 1805, he fought in Italy where he was wounded. He accompanied Masséna to southern Italy in 1806 and Poland in 1807. The 1809 campaign saw him at Ebelsberg where he was wounded, and at Aspern-Essling and Wagram
1779 Clement Clarke Moore an American Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature, as well as Divinity and Biblical Learning, at the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in New York City. Located on land donated by the "Bard of Chelsea" himself, the seminary still stands today on Ninth Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, in an area known as Chelsea Square. Moore's connection with that institution continued for over twenty-five years. He is the author of the yuletide poem "A Visit from Nicholas", which later became famous as "'Twas the Night Before Christmas"
1790 William Henry Playfair one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th century, designer of many of Edinburgh's neo-classical landmarks in the New Town.
1796 Thomas Bulfinch an American writer born in Newton, Massachusetts. Bulfinch belonged to a well-educated Bostonian merchant family of modest means. His father was Charles Bulfinch, the architect of the Massachusetts State House in Boston and parts of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.. Bulfinch supported himself through his position at the Merchants' Bank of Boston
1799 Reuben Chapman an American lawyer and politician. Born in 1799 in Bowling Green, Virginia, he represented Alabama in the U.S. House from 1835 to 1847 and served as the 13th Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1847 to 1849. He died in Huntsville, Alabama in 1882
1800 Sidney Breese a U.S. Senator from Illinois, Chief Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court, Speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives, a forefather of Illinois, and "father of the Illinois Central Railroad"
1808 Henry Edward Manning an English Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster and a cardinal.
1810 Johann Löwenthal a professional chess master.
1812 James Hope-Scott a British barrister and Tractarian.
1812 Emil von Sydow a German geographer and cartographer born in Freiberg, Saxony.
1812 Benno Adam a German animal painter.
1817 Sir John Fowler 1st Baronet an English civil engineer specialising in the construction of railways and railway infrastructure. In the 1850s and 1860s, he was engineer for the world's first underground railway, London's Metropolitan Railway, built by the "cut-and-cover" method under city streets. In the 1880s, he was chief engineer for the Forth Railway Bridge, which opened in 1890. Fowler's was a long and eminent career, spanning most of the 19th century's railway expansion, and he was engineer, adviser or consultant to many British and foreign railway companies and governments. He was the youngest president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, between 1865 and 1867, and his major works represent a lasting legacy of Victorian engineering
1821 Jindřich Wankel Czech palaeontologist and archaeologist.
1823 Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine (1823–1888) the third son and fourth child of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Wilhelmina of Baden.
1825 Julius Goltermann a 19th-century German cellist and music professor.
1835 Waller T. Patton a professor, attorney, and an officer of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
1837 Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen the Queen consort of King Peter V of Portugal.
1841 Pavel Jacobi a Russian socialist, member of the Land and Liberty society, ethnographer and physician. He was a pioneer of the Pinel reforms of psychiatry in Russia, credited to be first who formulated all the principles for the new paradigm in the organizational psychiatry
1845 Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1845–1927) a member of the Austrian house of Habsburg-Lorraine.
1847 Henry Farny a French-born United States painter and illustrator. His work was centered on the life of Native Americans in the 19th-century United States
1848 Vilfredo Pareto an Italian engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, and philosopher. He made several important contributions to economics, particularly in the study of income distribution and in the analysis of individuals' choices. He was also responsible for popularising the use of the term "elite" in social analysis
1850 Frances Xavier Cabrini Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini, M.S.C. also called Mother Cabrini, was an Italian religious sister, who founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, a Catholic religious institute that was a major support to the Italian immigrants to the United States. She was the first naturalized citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church
1851 Eduardo Gutiérrez an Argentine writer. His works of gauchoesque nature acquired great popularity, specially Juan Moreira, a novel successfully adapted to the stage in 1884 that popularized the gaucho as a protagonist in Argentine theatre
1853 Maria Yermolova said to be the greatest actress in the history of the Maly Theatre in Moscow and the first person to be proclaimed the "People's Artist of the Republic".
1854 Jacek Malczewski one of the most revered painters of Poland, associated with the patriotic Young Poland movement following the century of Partitions. He is regarded as father of Polish Symbolism. In his creative output, Malczewski combined the predominant style of his times, with the historical motifs of Polish martyrdom, the Romantic ideals of independence, the Christian and Greek traditions, folk mythology, as well as his love of natural environment
1858 Emmeline Pankhurst a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. In 1999 Time named Pankhurst as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back." She was widely criticised for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognised as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain