Died on July 16

678 Aisha one of Muhammad's wives. In Islamic writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the title "Mother of the Believers" , per the description of Muhammad's wives in the Quran
716 Emperor Ruizong of Tang the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. He was the eighth son of Emperor Gaozong and the fourth son of Emperor Gaozong's second wife Empress Wu
784 Fulrad born in 710 into a wealthy family, and died on July 16, 784 as the Abbot of Denis. He was the counselor of both Pippin and Charlemagne. Historians see Fulrad as important due to his significance in the rise of the Frankish Kingdom, and the insight he gives into early Carolingian society. He was noted to be have been always on the side on Charlemagne, especially during the attack from the Saxons on Regnum Franserum , and the Royal Mandatum. Other historians have taken a closer look at Fulrad’s interactions with the papacy. When Fulrad was the counselor of Pepin he was closely in contact with the papacy to gain approval for Pepin’s appoint as King of the Franks. During his time under Charlemagne, he had dealings with the papacy again for different reasons. When he became Abbot of Denis , Fulrad’s life became important in the lives of distinct historical figures in various ways during his period as Denis’s abbot during the mid-eighth century. Saint Fulrad’s Feast Day is on July 16
1216 Pope Innocent III reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni
1298 Jacobus de Voragine an Italian chronicler and archbishop of Genoa. He was the author, or more accurately the compiler, of Legenda Aurea, the Golden Legend, a collection of the legendary lives of the greater saints of the medieval church that was one of the most popular religious works of the Middle Ages
1309 James Stewart 5th High Steward of Scotland High Steward of Scotland and a Guardian of Scotland during the First Interregnum.
1324 Emperor Go-Uda the 91st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1274 through 1287
1342 Charles I of Hungary the first King of Hungary and Croatia of the House of Anjou. He also descended from the old Hungarian Árpád dynasty. His claim to the throne of Hungary was contested by several pretenders. Nevertheless, although he was only a child when his grandfather, King Charles II of Naples sent him to Hungary in 1300, Charles would strengthen his rule in the kingdom against his opponents and the powerful magnates following a long series of internal struggles. Charles also carried out numerous important political and economical reforms: he established the so-called honor system which made the powerful barons dependent of his favour, and he introduced new coins with a consistently high purity of gold. Charles's foreign policy largely stemmed from dynastic alliances. His most successful achievement was the mutual defense union with Poland and Bohemia against the Habsburgs. Charles also endeavoured to enforce his or his descendants' claim to the Kingdom of Naples, but he could achieve only sham results. Nevertheless, he was one of the most successful rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary whose efforts established his successor's achievements
1388 Nijō Yoshimoto a Japanese kugyō , waka poet, and renga master of the early Muromachi period.
1483 Alvise Cadamosto an Italian slave trader and explorer, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare. Cadamosto and his companions are credited with the discovery of the Cape Verde Islands and the points along the Guinea coast, from the Gambia River to the Geba River , the greatest leap in the Henrican discoveries since 1446. Cadamosto's accounts of his journeys, including his detailed observations of west African societies, have proven invaluable to historians
1487 Charlotte Queen of Cyprus Queen of Cyprus and Princess of Antioch, as well as titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia.
1509 Mikalojus Radvila the Old a Lithuanian noble. He was known after a patronym Radvilaitis, made of his father's name Radvila, which in turn became a family name of his heirs, Radvilos, later Polonised as Radziwiłł
1546 Anne Askew an English poet and Protestant who was condemned as a heretic. She is the only woman on record known to have been both tortured in the Tower of London and burnt at the stake. She is also one of the earliest female poets to compose in the English language and the first Englishwoman to demand a divorce
1557 Anne of Cleves Queen of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared never consummated, and she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment of their marriage, Anne was given a generous settlement by the King, and thereafter referred to as the King's Beloved Sister. She lived to see the coronation of Queen Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry's wives
1576 Isabella de' Medici the daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleonora di Toledo. She was raised and educated in a humanist manner with her siblings, including Francesco de' Medici who succeeded their father as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. To secure a relationship with the powerful Roman Orsinis, Isabella's father arranged her marriage to Paolo Giordano I Orsini when she was 16. She remained in her father's household after her marriage, giving her an unusual degree of independence for a woman of her period. Following the death of her father, Isabella was probably murdered, with the complicity of her husband and brother, and in retribution for her relationship with Paolo Giordano's cousin Troilo Orsini
1614 Tsarevich Ivan Dmitriyevich the only son of False Dmitry II of Russia and his wife Marina Mniszech, daughter of Polish Voivode Jerzy Mniszech and his wife Jadwiga Tarło. He was a claimant to the throne of the Tsardom of Russia until his death at the age of not quite four, in December 1614. He was killed right after his step-father, Ivan Zarutsky
1633 John Casimir Duke of Saxe-Coburg the Duke of Saxe-Coburg. He was the descendant of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin
1647 Masaniello an Italian fisherman, who became leader of the revolt against the rule of Habsburg Spain in Naples in 1647.
1662 Alfonso IV d'Este Duke of Modena Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1658 until his death. He was the father of Mary of Modena, consort of James II of England
1663 William VI Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1637 to 1663.
1664 Andreas Gryphius a German lyric poet and dramatist.
1686 John Pearson (bishop) an English theologian and scholar.
1691 François-Michel le Tellier Marquis de Louvois the French Secretary of State for War for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV. Louvois and his father, Michel le Tellier, would increase the French Army to 400,000 soldiers, an army that would fight four wars between 1667 and 1713. He is commonly referred to as "Louvois"
1722 Maria Angela Caterina d'Este an Italian born Princess of Modena who was later the Princess of Carignano by marriage. She was the wife of Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, Prince of Carignano. In France she was known as Angélique Catherine d'Este and in Modena and Savoy she was known as Maria Caterina d'Este. She is an ancestor of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and thus the whole present pretending Italian Royal Family. She is also an ancestor of the pretender of France
1729 Johann David Heinichen a German Baroque composer and music theorist who brought the musical genius of Venice to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. Heinichen's music lingered in obscurity for a long time
1739 Charles François de Cisternay du Fay a French chemist and superintendent of the Jardin du Roi.
1740 Maria Anna of Neuburg Queen of Spain from 1689 to 1700 as the second wife of King Charles II.
1740 Jan Kupecký a Czech and Slovak portrait painter during the baroque. He was active in Hungary, Slovakia, Vienna and Nürnberg. Bernhard Vogel produced a large number of engravings after Kupecký's paintings
1747 Giuseppe Crespi an Italian late Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. His eclectic output includes religious paintings and portraits, but he is now most famous for his genre paintings
1763 Jacques-Martin Hotteterre a French composer and flautist. Jacques-Martin Hotteterre was the most celebrated of a family of wind instrument makers and wind performers
1764 Ivan VI of Russia proclaimed Emperor of Russia in 1740, as an infant, although he never actually reigned. Within less than a year, he was overthrown by the Empress Elizabeth of Russia, Peter I's daughter. Ivan spent the rest of his life as a prisoner and was killed by his guards during an attempt made to free him
1770 Francis Cotes an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768.
1773 Nils Rosén von Rosenstein a Swedish physician. He is considered the founder of modern pediatrics, while his work The diseases of children, and their remedies is considered to be "the first modern textbook on the subject"
1782 Louisa Ulrika of Prussia Queen of Sweden between 1751 and 1771 as the spouse of King Adolf Frederick, and queen mother during the reign of King Gustav III.
1789 Domenico Caracciolo diplomat and politician in the Kingdom of Naples.
1795 Herman Scholliner a German Benedictine theologian and historian.
1796 George Howard (British Army officer) a British military officer and politician. After commanding the 3rd Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession and after commanding that regiment again at the Battle of Falkirk Muir and the Battle of Culloden during the Jacobite Rebellion, he returned to the continent and fought at the Battle of Lauffeld. He went on to command a brigade at the Battle of Warburg during the Seven Years' War. He subsequently became the Governor of Minorca
1820 Johann von Böber a German teacher, entomologist and botanist. He was first a professor at Peter's College Jelgava then in 1796. became an advisor to the Academy of Sciences in Petersburg. In 1809 he wrote Description de quelques nouvelles espèces de papillons découverts en Sibérie Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosco 2: 305-310, 1pl. His botanical works are
1831 Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron a French military in the service of the Kingdom of France and in the service of the Russian Empire.
1846 Vasily Demut-Malinovsky a Russian sculptor whose works represent the quintessence of the Empire style.
1847 Karl Friedrich Burdach a German physiologist. He was born in Leipzig and died in Königsberg
1850 Julia Glover an Irish-born stage actress well known for her comic roles in the late 18th and 19th centuries.
1855 Vasily Shebuyev a Russian painter, State Councilor and Rector at the Imperial Academy of Arts.
1857 Pierre-Jean de Béranger a prolific French poet and chansonnier , who enjoyed great popularity and influence in France during his lifetime, but faded into obscurity in the decades following his death. He has been described as "the most popular French songwriter of all time" and "the first superstar of French popular music"
1858 Shimazu Nariakira a Japanese feudal lord of the Edo period, the 28th in the line of Shimazu clan lords of Satsuma Domain. He was renowned as an intelligent and wise lord, and was greatly interested in Western learning and technology. He was enshrined after death as the Shinto kami Terukuni Daimyōjin in May 1863
1868 Louis François Dauprat a French horn player, composer and music professor at the Conservatoire de Paris. He played and taught only natural horn, but was also very interested in the first experiments with keyed horns. He successfully ensured the development of a distinctively French school of playing, marginally influenced by the invention of the valve horn
1868 Dmitry Pisarev a radical Russian writer and social critic who, according to Georgi Plekhanov, "spent the best years of his life in a fortress".
1868 Oskar Becker (assailant) a German political fanatic, known for his attempted assassination of William I of Prussia.
1870 François Mathias René Leprieur a French pharmacist and naturalist. Throughout his career, he collected specimens in the fields of entomology, ichthyology and botany
1879 Edward Deas Thomson an Australian administrator, politician and chancellor of the University of Sydney.