July 16 events in history

622 The beginning of the Islamic calendar
1054 Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Historians frequently describe the event as the start of the East–West Schism
1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: After Pope Innocent III calls European knights to a crusade, forces of Kings Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal defeat those of the Berber Muslim leader Almohad, thus marking a significant turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain
1377 Coronation of Richard II of England
1661 The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco
1683 Manchu Qing Dynasty naval forces under traitorous commander Shi Lang defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu near the Pescadores Islands
1769 Father Junípero Serra founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego, California
1779 American Revolutionary War: Light infantry of the Continental Army seize a fortified British Army position in a midnight bayonet attack at the Battle of Stony Point
1782 First performance of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail
1790 The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after signature of the Residence Act
1809 The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo
1849 Antonio María Claret y Clará founded the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, popularly known as the Claretians in Vic, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
1861 American Civil War: At the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25 mile march into Virginia for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the war
1862 American Civil War: David Farragut is promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold an admiral rank
1909 Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son Ahmad Shah Qajar
1910 John Robertson Duigan makes the first flight of the Duigan pusher biplane, the first aircraft built in Australia
1915 First Order of the Arrow ceremony takes place and the Order of the Arrow is founded
1915 Henry James becomes a British citizen, to highlight his commitment to Britain during the first World War
1927 Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal, but is repulsed by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history
1931 Emperor Haile Selassie I signs the first constitution of Ethiopia
1935 The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
1941 Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game, a streak that still stands as a MLB record
1942 Holocaust: Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv): The government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz
1945 Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico
1945 World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco with parts for the atomic bomb "Little Boy" bound for Tinian Island
1948 The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane
1948 Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1950 Chaplain–Medic massacre: American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army
1951 The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger is published for the first time by Little, Brown and Company
1951 King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates in favor of his son, Baudouin I of Belgium
1956 Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus closes its very last "Big Tent" show in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, due to changing economics all subsequent circus shows will be held in arenas
1960 USS George Washington a modified Skipjack class submarine successfully test fires the first ballistic missile while submerged
1965 The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opens
1965 South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo—an undetected communist spy—was hunted down and killed after being sentenced to death in absentia for a February 1965 coup attempt against Nguyễn Khánh
1969 Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida
1973 Watergate scandal: Former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations
1979 Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein
1981 Mahathir Mohamad becomes Malaysia's 4th Prime Minister
1983 Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities
1990 The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR
1990 The Luzon Earthquake strikes in Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, La Union, Aurora, Bataan, Zambales and Tarlac, Philippines, with an intensity of 7.7
1994 Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts continue until July 22
1999 John F. Kennedy, Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha's Vineyard. His wife Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are also killed
2004 Millennium Park, considered Chicago, Illinois's first and most ambitious early 21st-century architectural project, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley
2008 Sixteen infants in Gansu Province, China, who had been fed on tainted milk powder, are diagnosed with kidney stones; in total an estimated 300,000 infants are affected
2013 As many as 27 children die and 25 others are hospitalized after eating lunch served at their school in eastern India