Died on July 17

521 Magnus Felix Ennodius Bishop of Pavia in 514, and a Latin rhetorician and poet.
607 Ali the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661. A son of Abu Talib, Ali was also the first male who accepted Islam. Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun , while Shias regard Ali as the first Imam after Muḥammad, and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of whom are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah into the Sunni and Shi`i branches
855 Pope Leo IV Pope from 10 April 847 to his death in 855.
924 Edward the Elder an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister
1070 Baldwin VI Count of Flanders a Belgian nobleman. He was the ruling count of Hainaut from 1051 to 1070 and Count of Flanders from 1067 to 1070
1085 Robert Guiscard a Norman adventurer conspicuous in the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become Count of Apulia and Calabria , and then Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily
1119 Baldwin VII Count of Flanders Count of Flanders from 1111 to 1119.
1210 Sverker II of Sweden King of Sweden from 1196 to 1208.
1270 Margaret Marchioness of Namur the daughter of Peter II of Courtenay and Yolanda of Flanders.
1399 Jadwiga of Poland queen of Poland from 1384 to her death. She was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, the daughter of king Louis I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Bosnia
1450 Francis I Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany, Count of Montfort and titular Earl of Richmond, from 1442 to his death. He was son of Duke John VI and Joan of France
1453 John Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury an important English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, as well as the only Lancastrian Constable of France.
1531 Hosokawa Takakuni Japanese commander
1558 George I of Württemberg-Mömpelgard a son of the Duke Henry of Württemberg and his second wife, the Countess Eva of Salm.
1571 Georg Fabricius a Protestant German poet, historian and archaeologist.
1582 Akechi Mitsuhide a general who lived during the Sengoku period of Feudal Japan.
1588 Mimar Sinan the chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than 300 major structures and other more modest projects, such as his Islamic primary schools. His apprentices would later design the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Stari Most in Mostar, and help design the Taj Mahal in the Mughal Empire
1627 Lieven de Key a famous Dutch renaissance architect in the Netherlands, mostly known today for his works in Haarlem.
1632 Hendrick van Balen a Flemish Baroque painter and stained glass designer.
1645 Robert Carr 1st Earl of Somerset a politician, and favourite of King James I of England.
1676 Madame de Brinvilliers a French aristocrat accused of three murders. She was convicted on the strength of letters written by her dead lover and a confession obtained by torture, so her guilt remains uncertain
1704 Pierre-Charles Le Sueur a French fur trader and explorer in North America, recognized as the first known European to explore the Minnesota River valley.
1709 Robert Bolling a wealthy early American settler planter and merchant. His Mother was Mary Carie, his father was John Bolling born 1615. He was named after his Grandfather Robert Bolling, his Grandmother was Anne Clarke
1744 Charles d'Orléans de Rothelin a French churchman, writer, scholar, numismatist and theologian.
1755 Marie Elisabeth Abbess of Quedlinburg Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg from 1718 until her death.
1762 Peter III of Russia Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. He was born as Karl Peter Ulrich, son of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The German Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. He was likely assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his German wife Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, who succeeded him to the throne as Catherine II
1766 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit) S.J. was an Italian Jesuit lay brother who served as a missionary in China, where he became a painter at the court of the emperor
1790 Adam Smith a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments , and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the "father of modern economics" and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today
1791 Martin Dobrizhoffer an Austrian Roman Catholic missionary and writer.
1793 Charlotte Corday a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed under the guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat
1794 Jean-Frédéric Edelmann a French classical composer. He was born in Strasbourg but, after studying law and music, he moved to Paris in 1774 where he played and taught the piano. It is possible that Edelmann worked for some time in London. During the French Revolution he was appointed administrator of the Bas-Rhin. In July 1794 he was arrested and executed by guillotine
1794 John Roebuck about the English inventor. For the 19th century British politician, see John Arthur Roebuck
1798 Henry Joy McCracken an Irish industrialist and a founding member of the Society of the United Irishmen.
1803 Adolph Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld a member of the House of Hesse. He was the ruling Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld from 1772 until his death
1811 Christian Schkuhr a German gardener, artist and botanist.
1812 John Broadwood the Scottish founder of the piano manufacturer Broadwood and Sons.
1820 Georg Prochaska a leading Czech-Austrian anatomist, ophthalmologist, physiologist, writer and university professor. He wrote the first genuine textbook on physiology and created the concept of nerve conduction among other theories. He was a staunch promoter of the modern reflex theory
1826 Joseph Graetz a German composer, organist, and music educator. In 1790 two of his stage works premiered: the operetta Das Gespenst mit der Trommel and the opera Adelheid von Veltheim. His notable students included Kaspar Ett, Peter Josef von Lindpaintner, and Eduard Rottmanner
1837 Juan Pedro Aguirre an Argentine revolutionary and politician.
1845 Charles Grey 2nd Earl Grey Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 22 November 1830 to 16 July 1834. A member of the Whig Party, he backed significant reform of the British government and was among the primary architects of the Reform Act 1832. His government also saw the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. In addition to his political achievements, he has come to be associated with Earl Grey tea
1852 Salvadore Cammarano a prolific Italian librettist and playwright perhaps best known for writing the text of Lucia di Lammermoor for Gaetano Donizetti.
1859 Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen the Queen consort of King Peter V of Portugal.
1863 J. Johnston Pettigrew an author, lawyer, linguist, diplomat, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He was a major leader in the disastrous Pickett's Charge and was mortally wounded a few days after the Battle of Gettysburg during the Confederate retreat to Virginia
1864 László Szalay a Hungarian statesman and historian.
1864 Friedrich August Rudolph Kolenati a Czech-German botanist and zoologist active primarily in Prague and Brno.
1867 Liborio Romano an Italian politician.
1871 Carl Tausig a Polish virtuoso pianist, arranger and composer.
1878 Aleardo Aleardi an Italian poet who belonged to the so-called Neo-romanticists.
1879 Maurycy Gottlieb a Polish-Jewish realist painter of the Romantic period. He was born in Drohobych to a wealthy, Yiddish-Polish-speaking orthodox Jewish family living in Galicia, then part of the Austrian sector of the Partitioned Poland, now Western Ukraine. Considered one of the most talented students of Jan Matejko he died at the age of 23
1881 Jim Bridger among the foremost mountain men, trappers, scouts and guides who explored and trapped the Western United States during the decades of 1820-1850, as well as mediating between native tribes and encroaching whites. He was of English ancestry, and his family had been in North America since the early colonial period