Born on July 18

390 Brennus (4th century BC) a chieftain of the Senones. He defeated the Romans at the Battle of the Allia. In 387 BC he led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome and captured most of the city, holding it for several months. Brennus's sack of Rome was the only time the city was occupied by a non-Roman army before the fall of the city to the Goths in 410 AD
1013 Hermann of Reichenau an 11th-century scholar, composer, music theorist, mathematician, and astronomer. He composed the Marian prayer Alma Redemptoris Mater. He was beatified in 1863
1501 Isabella of Austria Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway as the wife of King Christian She was the daughter of King Philip I and Queen Joanna of Castile and the sister of Emperor Charles She was born at Brussels. She served as regent of Denmark in 1520
1504 Heinrich Bullinger a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church and pastor at Grossmünster. A much less controversial figure than John Calvin or Martin Luther, his importance has long been underestimated; recent research shows that he was one of the most influential theologians of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century
1552 Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor , King of Hungary and Croatia , King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. He was a member of the House of Habsburg
1581 Hendrik Brouwer a Dutch explorer, admiral, and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies.
1634 Johannes Camphuys the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1684 to 1691.
1659 Hyacinthe Rigaud a French baroque painter of Catalan origin whose career was based in Paris.
1664 Count Palatine Francis Louis of Neuburg bishop and archbishop of several dioceses, prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, and Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order.
1670 Giovanni Bononcini an Italian Baroque composer, cellist, singer and teacher, one of a family of string players and composers.
1673 Countess Palatine Hedwig Elisabeth of Neuburg the daughter of Philip William, Duke of Neuburg, Berg and Jülich, Elector Palatine of Neuburg, and his wife Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt.
1702 Maria Clementina Sobieska a Polish noblewoman, the granddaughter of the Polish king John III Sobieski.
1712 Karl Friedrich Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
1718 Saverio Bettinelli an Italian Jesuit writer.
1720 Gilbert White a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering English naturalist and ornithologist. He remained unmarried and a curate all his life. He is best known for his Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne
1724 Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria a German composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron, known particularly for her operas Il trionfo della fedeltà and Talestri, regina delle amazoni. She was also the Regent of Saxony in 1763-1768. Baptised Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa, she was known as Maria Antonia
1728 Pietro Arduino an Italian botanist. His official abbreviation is Ard
1768 Jean-Robert Argand an amateur mathematician. In 1806, while managing a bookstore in Paris, he published the idea of geometrical interpretation of complex numbers known as the Argand diagram and is known for the first rigorous proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
1770 David Pierre Giottino Humbert de Superville a Dutch artist and art scholar. He was a draughtsman, lithographer, etcher, and portrait painter, and also wrote treatises on art, including the influential work Essai sur les signes inconditionnels dans l'art. His 1815 painting of the jurist and statesman Johan Melchior Kemper is now part of the collection of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam
1775 Karl von Rotteck a German political activist, historian, politician and political scientist. He was a prominent advocate of freedom of the press and the abolition of compulsory labor
1786 Princess Caroline Louise of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a princess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin by virtue of her marriage. She was the daughter of Charles Augustus, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and his wife Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
1794 Feargus O'Connor an Irish Chartist leader and advocate of the Land Plan.
1796 Immanuel Hermann Fichte a German philosopher and son of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In his philosophy, he was a theist and strongly opposed to the Hegelian School
1802 John Alexander Greer a Texan politician, and the second Lieutenant Governor of Texas serving under Governors George Wood and Peter Bell.
1804 Elizabeth Gould (illustrator) a British artist and illustrator, married to naturalist John Gould. She produced many illustrations for his ornithological works
1804 Édouard Guillaume Eugène Reuss a Protestant theologian from Alsace.
1811 James Bateman a British landowner and accomplished horticulturist. He developed Biddulph Grange after moving there around 1840, from nearby Knypersley Hall in Staffordshire, England. He created the famous gardens at Biddulph with the aid of his friend and painter of seascapes Edward William Cooke. From 1865–70 he was president of the North Staffordshire Field Club, the large local club which researched in local natural history and folklore
1811 William Makepeace Thackeray an English novelist of the 19th century. He was famous for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society
1811 Karl L. Littrow an Austrian astronomer.
1813 Ludwig Rosenfelder a German painter and philosopher. He specialized in religious and historical paintings
1813 Émile Egger a French scholar who was born in Paris.
1813 Pierre Alphonse Laurent a French mathematician best known as the discoverer of the Laurent series, an expansion of a function into an infinite power series, generalizing the Taylor series expansion. He was born in Paris, France. His result was contained in a memoir submitted for the Grand Prize of the Académie des Sciences in 1843, but his submission was after the due date, and the paper was not published and never considered for the prize. Laurent died at age 41 in Paris. His work was not published until after his death
1817 Franz Anton Schiefner a Baltic German linguist and tibetologist.
1818 Louis Gerhard De Geer a Swedish statesman and writer.
1825 John Berryman (VC) an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
1827 Pierre-Lambert Goossens a Belgian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Mechelen from 1884 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1889
1831 Johann Martin Schleyer a German Catholic priest who invented the constructed language Volapük. His official name was "Martin Schleyer"; he added the name "Johann" unofficially
1836 Joseph Smit a Dutch zoological illustrator.
1837 Vasil Levski a Bulgarian revolutionary and a national hero of Bulgaria. Dubbed the Apostle of Freedom, Levski ideologised and strategised a revolutionary movement to liberate Bulgaria from Ottoman rule. Founding the Internal Revolutionary Organisation, Levski sought to foment a nationwide uprising through a network of secret regional committees
1837 Émile Campardon a French historian, archivist and writer. He was an archivist and head of the judicial section of the Archives nationales de France from 1857 to 1908, and the author of numerous books. At the beginning of the 20th century he published Quatrains and Souvenirs d’un archiviste. Intended for a circle of friends these extremely rare volumes contain amusing and impertinent portraits of archivists of the 19th century
1839 Ivan Kuratov a Komi poet and linguist, seen as renovator of Komi literature.
1840 Giovanni Arcangeli an Italian botanist from Florence.
1843 Johannes Kohtz a German chess composer and together with Carl Kockelkorn one of the founders of the logical school.
1845 Tristan Corbière a French poet born in Coat-Congar, Ploujean in Brittany, where he lived most of his life before dying of tuberculosis at the age of 29.
1848 W. G. Grace William Gilbert "W. G." Grace, MRCS, LRCP was an English amateur cricketer who was important in the development of the sport and is widely considered one of its greatest-ever players. Universally known as "W. G.", he played first-class cricket for a record-equalling 44 seasons, from 1865 to 1908, during which he captained England, Gloucestershire, the Gentlemen, Marylebone Cricket Club , the United South of England Eleven and several other teams. He came from a cricketing family: the appearance in 1880 of G. with M. Grace, one of his elder brothers, and Fred Grace, his younger brother, was the first time three brothers played together in Test cricket
1849 Anna Judic a French comic actress. Her ménage à trois proved the inspiration for that in the 1880 Émile Zola novel Nana
1849 Hugo Riemann a German music theorist and composer.
1850 Rose Hartwick Thorpe American poet and writer, remembered largely for a single narrative poem that gained national popularity. She was born in Mishawaka, Indiana. Among her poems were Curfew Must Not Ring Tonight. She died in San Diego, California. The poem was written while Thorpe resided in Litchfield, Michigan, a small rural town. A bell in the center of the town commemorates the poem and Thorpe's time spent in the town. Litchfield has adopted the title of the poem as something of a symbol, having firetrucks and city website show the symbol of a bell reading "Curfew Shall not Ring Tonight."
1852 Anthony Sweijs a Dutch sports shooter who competed in the early 20th century in pistol shooting. He participated in Shooting at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and won a bronze medal with the Dutch pistol team
1853 Hendrik Lorentz a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He also derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time