Died on July 18

707 Emperor Monmu the 42nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
715 Muhammad bin Qasim an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Taif. Qasim's conquest of Sindh and southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Islamic expansion into India
912 Zhu Wen a Jiedushi at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rebel Huang Chao's state of Qi and overthrew Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
1038 Gunhilda of Denmark the first spouse of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.
1100 Godfrey of Bouillon a medieval Frankish knight who was one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until his death. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, although he refused the title "King"; as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Christ
1123 Bruno (bishop of Segni) an Italian Catholic saint.
1137 Eric II of Denmark king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137. Eric was an illegitimate son of Eric I of Denmark, who ruled Denmark from 1095 to 1103. Eric the Memorable rebelled against his uncle Niels of Denmark, and was declared king in 1134. He punished his adversaries severely, and rewarded his supporters handsomely. He was killed by a subject in 1137, and was promptly succeeded by his nephew Eric III of Denmark
1194 Guy of Lusignan a Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty. He was king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 by right of marriage to Sibylla of Jerusalem, and of Cyprus from 1192 to 1194. Having arrived in the Holy Land at an unknown date, Guy was hastily married to Sibylla in 1180 to prevent a political incident within the kingdom. As Baldwin's health deteriorated, Guy was appointed regent of Jerusalem; at Sibylla's succession to the throne in 1186 she gave the crown to Guy as her king-consort. Guy's reign was marked by increased hostilities with the Ayyubids ruled by Saladin, culminating in the disastrous Battle of Hattin in July 1187—during which Guy was captured—and the fall of Jerusalem itself three months later
1270 Boniface of Savoy (bishop) a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England. He was the son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, and owed his initial ecclesiastical posts to his father. Other members of his family were also clergymen, and a brother succeeded his father as count. One niece was married to King Henry III of England and another was married to King Louis IX of France. It was Henry who secured Boniface's election as Archbishop, and throughout his tenure of that office he spent much time on the continent. He clashed with his bishops, with his nephew-by-marriage, and with the papacy, but managed to eliminate the archiepiscopal debt which he had inherited on taking office. During Simon de Montfort's struggle with King Henry, Boniface initially helped Montfort's cause, but later supported the king. After his death in Savoy, his tomb became the object of a cult, and he was eventually beatified in 1839
1300 Gerard Segarelli the founder of the Apostolic Brethren. He was burned at the stake in 1300
1345 Adam Orleton an English churchman and royal administrator.
1365 Lorenzo Celsi a Venetian statesman who served as the 58th Doge of Venice, from July 16, 1361 until his death.
1566 Bartolomé de las Casas a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies and focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples
1592 Sibylle of Saxony a Saxon princess of the Albertine line of House of Wettin and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg.
1605 Johann II Duke of Saxe-Weimar a Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Jena.
1608 Joachim III Frederick Elector of Brandenburg Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.
1610 Caravaggio an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting
1639 Bernard of Saxe-Weimar a German prince and general in the Thirty Years' War.
1650 Christoph Scheiner a Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer in Ingolstadt.
1658 Álvaro Semedo a Portuguese Jesuit missionary in China.
1695 Johannes Camphuys the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1684 to 1691.
1697 António Vieira a Portuguese Jesuit philosopher and writer, the "prince" of Catholic pulpit-orators of his time.
1698 Johann Heinrich Heidegger born at Bäretswil, in the Canton of Zürich.
1721 Jean-Antoine Watteau a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of interest in colour and movement, as seen in the tradition of Correggio and Rubens. He revitalized the waning Baroque style, shifting it to the less severe, more naturalistic, less formally classical Rococo
1729 Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach the eldest son of Theodore Eustace, Count Palatine of Sulzbach.
1730 François de Neufville duc de Villeroy a French soldier.
1735 Johann Krieger a German composer and organist, younger brother of Johann Philipp Krieger. Born in Nuremberg, he worked at Bayreuth, Zeitz, and Greiz before settling in Zittau. He was one of the most important keyboard composers of his day, highly esteemed by, among others, George Frideric Handel. A prolific composer of church and secular music, he published several dozen of his works, and others survive in manuscript. However, hundreds more were lost when Zittau was destroyed by fire in 1757, during the Seven Years' War
1742 Abraham Sharp an English mathematician and astronomer.
1756 Pieter Langendijk a damask weaver, city artist, dramatist, and poet.
1765 Philip Duke of Parma Duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. He founded the House of Bourbon-Parma , a cadet line of the Spanish branch of the dynasty. He was a son-in-law of Louis XV
1780 Gerhard Schøning a Norwegian historian. His Reise som giennem en Deel af Norge i de Aar 1773, 1774, 1775 paa Hans Majestets Kongens Bekostning documenting travel through Trondheim, Gudbrandsdal and Hedmark, Norway in 1773–1775 has been recognized as both a historical reference and as a "minor travel classic."
1781 Fernando Rivera y Moncada a soldier from New Spain who served in the Baja California peninsula and upper Las Californias, participating in several early overland explorations. Fernando Rivera y Moncada served as a Spanish Military Governor from 1774-1777
1792 John Paul Jones a Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. Although he made enemies among America's political elites, his actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to this day. As such, he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the United States Navy". He later served in the Imperial Russian Navy
1817 Jane Austen an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism, biting irony and social commentary as well as her acclaimed plots have gained her historical importance among scholars and critics
1826 Isaac Shelby the first and fifth Governor of the U.S. state of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also a soldier in Lord Dunmore's War, the Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812. While governor, he personally led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have been named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinson's The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto "United we stand, divided we fall"
1831 Adolf Fredrik Munck a Swedish and Finnish noble, during the Gustavian era.
1847 Bento Gonçalves da Silva an army officer, politician, monarchist and rebel leader of the Empire of Brazil.
1854 Prince Ilia of Georgia a Georgian prince royal , a son of George XII, the last king of Kartli and Kakheti, by his second marriage to Mariam Tsitsishvili. After the Russian annexation of Georgia in 1801, Ilia accompanied her mother into exile to Russia. He then received military training and served in the Russian army, fighting with distinction at the battle of Borodino against the French in 1812 and retiring with the rank of colonel in 1823. He had 13 children of his marriage with Princess Anastasia Obolenskaya and his descendants, bearing the surname of Gruzinsky, have survived in the 21st-century Russian Federation
1858 Francisco Antonio Pinto a Chilean political figure. He was twice President of Chile between 1827 and 1829
1863 William Dorsey Pender one of the youngest generals in the Confederacy in the American Civil War. Promoted to brigadier on the battlefield at Seven Pines by Confederate President Jefferson Davis in person, he fought in the Seven Days Battles and at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, being wounded in each of these engagements. Lee rated him as one of the most promising of his commanders, promoting him to major general at twenty-nine. Pender was mortally wounded on the second day of Gettysburg
1863 Robert Gould Shaw an American military officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. As Colonel, he commanded the all-black 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, which entered the war in 1863. He was killed in the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, near Charleston, South Carolina
1865 Albert (dancer) a French ballet dancer and ballet master, under the stage name Albert.
1865 Raffaele Piria an Italian chemist from Scilla, lived in Palmi, who converted the substance Salicin into a sugar and a second component, which on oxidation becomes salicylic acid, a major component of the analgesic drug Aspirin. Other reactions discovered by Piria were the conversion of aspartic acid to malic acid by action of nitrogen dioxide, and the reaction of aromatic nitro compounds with sulfite towards aminosulfonic acids
1868 Emanuel Leutze a German American history painter best known for his painting Washington Crossing the Delaware. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
1869 Louis Bouilhet a French poet and dramatist.
1870 Jean Théodore Lacordaire a Belgian entomologist of French extraction.
1872 Benito Juárez a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional president. He resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal measures to modernize the country
1873 Ferdinand David (musician) a German virtuoso violinist and composer.
1874 Louis Napoléon Lannes a French diplomat and politician.
1876 Karl Joseph Simrock a German poet and writer. He is primarily known for his translation of the Nibelungenlied into modern German