Born on July 19

810 Muhammad al-Bukhari a Persian Islamic scholar who authored the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the most sahih of all hadith compilations. He also wrote the books Al-Adab al-Mufrad
1223 Baibars the fourth Sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France. He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history
1249 Jacopo Tiepolo Doge of Venice from 6 March 1229 to 2 May 1249. He had previously served as the first Venetian duke of Crete, and two terms as podestà in Constantinople. During his first term, following the capture and mysterious end of Peter of Courtenay, Tiepolo acted as de facto ruler of the Latin Empire, negotiating treaties on behalf of the Empire with Egypt and the Seljuk Turks
1333 Alan Stewart of Dreghorn a Scottish nobleman.
1420 William VIII Marquess of Montferrat the Marquess of Montferrat from 1464 until his death.
1670 Olof Celsius a Swedish botanist, philologist and clergyman, He was a professor at Uppsala University, Sweden. Celsius was a mentor of the botanist and scientist Carolus Linnaeus. Celsius wrote his most famous book on biblical plants, Hierobotanicos, in 1745-47
1670 Richard Leveridge an English bass singer of the London stage and a composer of baroque music, including many popular songs.
1681 Henrietta Godolphin 2nd Duchess of Marlborough the daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, general of the army, and Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, close friend and business manager of Queen Anne.
1688 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit) S.J. was an Italian Jesuit lay brother who served as a missionary in China, where he became a painter at the court of the emperor
1692 Frederick William Duke of Courland Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1698 to 1711. Frederick Wilhelm was the son of Frederick Casimir Kettler and Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg. During his reign duchy was occupied by Swedish and later by Russian troops
1698 Johann Jakob Bodmer a German-Swiss author, academic, critic and poet.
1744 Heinrich Christian Boie a German author.
1759 Marianna Auenbrugger an Austrian pianist and composer.
1764 Krzysztof Celestyn Mrongovius a Protestant pastor, writer, philosopher, distinguished linguist, and translator. Mrongovius was a noted defender of the Polish language in Warmia and Mazury
1764 Juan José Castelli an Argentine lawyer. He was one of the leaders of the May Revolution, which started the Argentine War of Independence. He led an ill-fated military campaign in Upper Peru
1771 Thomas Talbot (Upper Canada) an Irish-born Canadian soldier and politician.
1775 Camillo Borghese 6th Prince of Sulmona a member of the Borghese family, best known for being brother-in-law to Napoleon.
1789 John Martin (painter) an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator.
1791 Odilon Barrot a French politician who was briefly head of the council of ministers under Prince Louis Napoleon in 1848–49.
1794 Mizuno Tadakuni a daimyō during late-Edo period Japan, who later served as chief senior councilor in service to the Tokugawa Shogunate. He is remembered for having instituted the Tenpo Reform
1798 Christian August II Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg a claimant of the rulership of the provinces of Slesvig and Holstein, and a fiefholder of Augustenborg and Sønderborg. He was a prince of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg and a cadet-line descendant of the Danish royal House of Oldenburg
1800 Juan José Flores a Venezuelan military general who became Supreme Chief, and later the first President of the new Republic of Ecuador. He later served two more terms from 1839 to 1843 and from 1843 to 1845, and is often referred to as "The Founder of the Republic"
1801 Robert J. Walker an American economist and statesman.
1803 Wolfgang Franz von Kobell a German mineralogist and writer of short stories and poems in Bavarian dialect.
1805 Domingo Elías President of Peru for a brief period between June and August 1844.
1806 Alexander Dallas Bache an American physicist, scientist and surveyor who erected coastal fortifications and conducted a detailed survey mapping of the United States coastline.
1806 José de Obaldía the 7th Vice President of New Granada, and as such served as Acting President in two occasions.
1807 Hermann Loew a German entomologist who specialised in the study of Diptera, an order of insects including flies, mosquitoes, gnats and midges. He described many world species and was the first specialist to work on the Diptera of the United States
1811 William H. Wallace an important figure in the early histories of two U.S. states, serving as governor and Congressional delegate from both Washington Territory and Idaho Territory.
1811 Lambert Massart a Belgian violinist who has been credited with the origination of the systematic vibrato. He compiled The Art of Working at Kreutzer's Etudes, a supplement that contains 412 fingerings and bowings taken from his time studying with Rodolphe Kreutzer. He was an excellent String quartet player who gave many delightful chamber concerts, having also played Beethoven's Kreutzer Sonata in A minor with Franz Liszt on 23 May 1843
1813 Isidore Pils a French painter.
1814 Samuel Colt an American inventor and industrialist from Hartford, Connecticut. He founded Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company , and made the mass production of the revolver commercially viable
1816 Hermann Schaaffhausen anatomist, anthropologist, and paleoanthropologist. Hermann Schaaffhausen was the son of Josef Hubert Schaaffhausen and Anna Maria Wachendorf. He studied medicine at the University of Berlin and received his doctorate degree in 1839, and became a Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bonn. Schaaffhausen soon became involved in research in physical anthropology and the study of prehistoric humans in Europe. He is best known for his study of the Neanderthal fossils. He was a member of several scientific societies, including the Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens located in Bonn, the Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande , and was an honorary member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte. He became a member of the prestigious Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher on 25 November 1873. Schaafhausen served as co-editor of the influential journal Archiv für Anthropologie. He was also one of the founders of the Rheinischen Landesmuseums located in Bonn. In addition to his scientific activities Schaaffhausen served as president of the Vereins der Rettung zur See. Although Darwin's theory of evolution was not yet published, Schaaffhausen discussed the idea of species evolving in an article titled “Ueber Beständigkeit und Umwandlung der Arten” published in the Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens in which he declared that "the immutability of species...is not proven." Many of his most important anthropological papers were collected and published in a book titled Anthropologische Studien
1819 Gottfried Keller a Swiss poet and writer of German literature. Best known for his novel Green Henry , he became one of the most popular narrators of literary realism in the late 19th century
1822 Princess Augusta of Cambridge a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She married into the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and became the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
1824 Prince Louis Count of Aquila a member of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
1825 George H. Pendleton a Representative and a Senator from Ohio. Nicknamed "Gentleman George" for his demeanor, he was the Democratic nominee for Vice President of the United States during the Civil War in 1864, running as a peace Democrat with war Democrat George McClellan; they lost to Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. He is best known as the principal author of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883
1827 Mangal Pandey an Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857.Mangal Pandey was a sepoy in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry regiment of the British East India Company. While contemporary British opinion considered him a traitor and mutineer, Pandey is widely regarded as a freedom fighter in modern India. In 1984, the Indian government issued a postage stamp to commemorate him. His life and actions have also been portrayed in several cinematic productions
1828 Roger Atkinson Pryor a newspaper editor and politician in Virginia who became known for his fiery oratory in favor of secession; he was elected both to national and Confederate office, and served as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. In 1865 he moved to New York City to remake his life, and in 1868 brought up his family. He was among a number of influential southerners in the North who became known as "Confederate carpetbaggers."
1828 Prince Adalbert of Bavaria (1828–1875) the ninth child and fourth son of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
1829 Victor Cherbuliez a French novelist and author. He was born at Geneva, Switzerland and died at Combs-la-Ville. He was the eleventh member elected to occupy seat 3 of the Académie française in 1881
1834 Edgar Degas a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance; more than half of his works depict dancers. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist. He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his renditions of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation
1835 Justo Rufino Barrios a President of Guatemala known for his liberal reforms and his attempts to reunite Central America.
1837 Georg Bühler a scholar of ancient Indian languages and law.
1838 Joel Asaph Allen an American zoologist and ornithologist.
1840 José Manuel Balmaceda the 11th President of Chile from September 18, 1886 to August 29, 1891. Balmaceda was part of the Castilian-Basque aristocracy in Chile. While he was president, his political disagreements with the Chilean congress, led to the 1891 Chilean Civil War, at the end of which he shot and killed himself
1842 Jakob Schipper a German-Austrian philologist and English scholar.
1842 Frederic T. Greenhalge a British-born lawyer and politician in the United States state of Massachusetts. He served in the United States House of Representatives and was the state's 38th governor. He was elected three consecutive times, but died early in his third term
1846 Edward Charles Pickering an American astronomer and physicist as well as the older brother of William Henry Pickering.
1849 Ferdinand Brunetière a French writer and critic.