Died on July 19

379 Macrina the Younger a prominent saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Her younger brother, Saint Gregory of Nyssa, wrote about her life focusing heavily on her virginity and asceticism
514 Pope Symmachus Pope from 22 November 498 to his death in 514. His tenure was marked by a serious schism over who was legitimately elected pope by the citizens of Rome
931 Emperor Uda the 59th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1234 Floris IV Count of Holland Count of Holland from 1222 to 1234. He was born at The Hague, a son of William I of Holland and his first wife, Adelaide of Guelders
1333 Archibald Douglas (died 1333) a Scottish noble, Guardian of Scotland and military leader. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman" , but this may be a reference to his great-nephew Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas
1374 Petrarch an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca. Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages"
1415 Philippa of Lancaster Queen of Portugal from 1387 until 1415 as the wife of King John Born into the royal family of England, her marriage secured the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance and produced several children who became known as the "Illustrious Generation" in Portugal.
1427 Stefan Lazarević the son of Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and a ruler of Serbia. He held a title of prince and despot. In his time he was regarded as one of the finest knights and military leaders, and because of his literature works he is regarded as one of the best Serbian writers in the Middle ages. After the death of his father on the Kosovo Field in 1389, he became ruler of Moravian Serbia and ruled with his mother Milica Hrebeljanović , until he reached adulthood in 1393. His reign and his personal literary works are sometimes associated with early signs of the Renaissance in Serbian lands. He introduced knightly tournaments, modern battle tactics, and firearms to Serbia
1457 Goharshad a wife of Shāh Rukh, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire of Herāt. She was the daughter of Giāth ud-Din Tarkhān, an important and influential noble during Tīmur's reign. According to family traditions, the title Tarkhān was given to the family by Genghis Khan personally
1476 Pierfrancesco the Elder an Italian banker and diplomat, a member of the House of Medici of Florence.
1500 Miguel da Paz Prince of Portugal a Portuguese royal infante , son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his first wife Isabella of Asturias. He was recognised as heir both to his father's kingdom of Portugal, and to his grandparents' kingdoms of Castile, León and Aragon. As such, he was styled Prince of Portugal, Prince of Asturias and Prince of Girona
1539 Lorenzo Campeggio an Italian cardinal and politician. He was the last cardinal protector of England
1597 Gunilla Bielke Queen of Sweden as the second spouse King John III. Queen Gunilla is acknowledged to have acted as the political adviser to John III and to have influenced his religious policies in favor of Protestantism
1621 Don Giovanni de' Medici an Italian military commander, diplomat and architect.
1631 Cesare Cremonini (philosopher) an Italian professor of natural philosophy, working rationalism and Aristotelian materialism inside scholasticism. He signed his Latin texts Cæsar Cremoninus , or Cæsar Cremonius
1682 Yohannes I nəgusä nägäst of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the fourth son of Fasilides
1687 Laura Martinozzi a Duchess consort of Modena. On the death of her husband, she became the regent of the Duchy in the name of her son, Francesco
1692 Susannah Martin a woman executed for witchcraft during the Salem witch trials.
1692 Rebecca Nurse executed for witchcraft by the government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in New England in 1692, during the Salem witch trials. She was the wife of Francis Nurse, with several children and grandchildren, and a well-respected member of the community. Although there was no credible evidence against her, she was hanged as a witch on July 19, 1692. This occurred during a time when the Massachusetts colony was seized with hysteria over witchcraft and the supposed presence of Satan within the colony. Her sisters Mary Eastey and Sarah Cloyce were also accused of witchcraft, with Mary found guilty and executed
1702 Frederick IV Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the reigning Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
1730 Jean-Baptiste Loeillet of London a Flemish baroque composer as well as a performer on the recorder, flute, oboe, and harpsichord. He is called the London Loeillet to distinguish him from another famous composer, his first cousin Jean Baptiste Loeillet of Ghent, and he was the elder brother of Jacques Loeillet, also a composer
1742 William Somervile an English poet.
1749 Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan a French churchman and politician. He became bishop of Strasbourg in 1704, Cardinal in 1712 then Grand Almoner of France in 1713 and member of the regency council in 1722
1753 Jerzy Ignacy Lubomirski a Polish nobleman. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on August 3, 1727
1780 Yevdokiya Yusupova a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Peter von Biron, on March 6, 1774 in Mitava. She had no issue
1793 Stanisław Lubomirski (1704–1793) a Polish noble and magnate.
1810 Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Queen consort of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I
1811 Raphaël Bienvenu Sabatier a French anatomist and surgeon born in Paris.
1814 Matthew Flinders a distinguished English navigator and cartographer, who was the first to circumnavigate Australia and identify it as a continent.
1824 Alexander Pearce an Irish convict who was transported to Van Diemen's Land for seven years for theft. He escaped from prison several times, but was eventually captured and was hanged and dissected in Hobart for murder
1824 Agustín de Iturbide a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag
1832 Karl Julius Weber a German writer.
1838 Pierre Louis Dulong a French physicist and chemist, remembered today largely for the law of Dulong and Petit. He worked on the specific heat capacity and the expansion and refractive indices of gases
1839 Maurice de Guérin a French poet.
1842 Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arría a Spanish statesman.
1842 Pierre Joseph Pelletier a French chemist who did notable research on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer of quinine and strychnine.
1843 Prince Augustus of Prussia a Prussian general. Born on Friedrichsfelde Palace, he was the youngest son of Prince Augustus Ferdinand of Prussia, the brother of King Frederick the Great, and Margravine Elisabeth Louise of Brandenburg-Schwedt
1847 Johann Wilhelm Wilms a Dutch-German composer, best known for setting the poem Wien Neêrlands Bloed to music, which served as the Dutch national anthem from 1815 to 1932.
1850 Margaret Fuller an American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States
1852 John McKinley a U.S. Senator from the state of Alabama and an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court
1854 Princess Louise Amelie of Baden a daughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and his wife Stéphanie de Beauharnais.
1855 Konstantin Batyushkov a Russian poet, essayist and translator of the Romantic era. He also served in the diplomatic corps, spending an extended period in 1818 and 1819 as a secretary to the Russian diplomatic mission at Naples
1855 Tomasz Zan a Polish poet and activist.
1857 Stefano Franscini a Swiss politician and statistician. He was one of the initial members of the Swiss Federal Council elected in 1848 and Switzerland's first native Italian speaking federal councillor. Franscini was affiliated to the Liberal Radical Party of Switzerland. During his office tenure he held the Department of Home Affairs. Important elements of his political legacy include political reforms in the Ticino during the 1830s and 1840s, Switzerland's first federal population census in 1850, and the creation of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1854/1855
1857 Ignacio Álvarez Thomas a South American military commander and politician of the early 19th century.
1861 Michele Tenore an Italian botanist active in Rome, Italy.
1868 Jules-Romain Tardieu a French writer, publisher and bookseller.
1868 Okita Sōji the captain of the first unit of the Shinsengumi, a special police force in Kyoto during the late shogunate period. He was one of the best swordsmen of the Shinsengumi
1870 Benjamin Thorpe an English scholar of Anglo-Saxon.
1878 Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev a Russian mathematician.