July 19 events in history

64 Great Fire of Rome: a fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control. According to a popular, but untrue legend, Nero fiddled as the city burned
484 Leontius, Roman usurper, is crowned Eastern emperor at Tarsus (modern Turkey). He is recognized in Antioch and makes it his capital
711 Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of Guadalete – Umayyad forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by King Roderic
1333 Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Halidon Hill – The English win a decisive victory over the Scots
1544 Italian War of 1542–46: the first Siege of Boulogne begins
1545 The Tudor warship Mary Rose sinks off Portsmouth; in 1982 the wreck is salvaged in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology
1553 Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days on the throne
1588 Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The Spanish Armada is sighted in the English Channel
1701 Representatives of the Iroquois Confederacy sign the Nanfan Treaty, ceding a large territory north of the Ohio River to England
1702 Great Northern War: A numerically superior Polish-Saxon army of Augustus II the Strong, operating from an advantageous defensive position, is defeated by a Swedish army half its size under the command of King Charles XII in the Battle of Klissow
1832 The British Medical Association is founded as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association by Sir Charles Hastings at a meeting in the Board Room of the Worcester Infirmary
1843 Brunel's steamship the SS Great Britain is launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull or screw propeller and becoming the largest vessel afloat in the world
1848 Women's rights: a two-day Women's Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York
1863 American Civil War: Morgan's Raid – At Buffington Island in Ohio, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan's raid into the north is mostly thwarted when a large group of his men are captured while trying to escape across the Ohio River
1864 Taiping Rebellion: Third Battle of Nanking – The Qing dynasty finally defeats the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
1870 Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia
1900 The first line of the Paris Métro opens for operation
1903 Maurice Garin wins the first Tour de France
1916 World War I: Battle of Fromelles – British and Australian troops attack German trenches in a prelude to the Battle of the Somme
1919 Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen riot and burn down Luton Town Hall
1940 World War II: Battle of Cape Spada – The Royal Navy and the Regia Marina clash; the Italian light cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni sinks, with 121 casualties
1940 World War II: Army order 112 forms the Intelligence Corps of the British Army
1942 World War II: Battle of the Atlantic – German Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz orders the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions in response to the effective American convoy system
1943 World War II: Rome is heavily bombed by more than 500 Allied aircraft, inflicting thousands of casualties
1947 The Prime Minister of the shadow Burmese government, Bogyoke Aung San and 6 of his cabinet and 2 non-cabinet members are assassinated by Galon U Saw
1947 Korean politician Lyuh Woon-hyung is assassinated
1952 The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were opened in Helsinki, Finland
1961 Tunisia imposes a blockade on the French naval base at Bizerte; the French would capture the entire town four days later
1963 Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 106,010 meters (347,800 feet) on X-15 Flight 90. Exceeding an altitude of 100 km, this flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention
1964 Vietnam War: at a rally in Saigon, South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Khánh calls for expanding the war into North Vietnam
1972 Dhofar Rebellion: British SAS units help the Omani government against Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman rebels in the Battle of Mirbat
1976 Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal is created
1979 The Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua
1981 In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French Prime Minister François Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development
1983 The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published
1985 The Val di Stava dam collapses killing 268 people in Val di Stava, Italy
1989 United Flight 232 crashes in Sioux City, Iowa killing 112
1992 A car bomb placed by mafia with collaboration of Italian intelligence kills Judge Paolo Borsellino and five members of his escort
1997 The Troubles: The Provisional Irish Republican Army resumes a ceasefire to end their 25-year campaign to end British rule in Northern Ireland