Born on July 2

419 Valentinian III Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the ongoing dismemberment of the Western Empire
866 Robert the Strong Margrave in Neustria. His family is named after him and called the Robertians. In 853 he was named missus dominicus by Charles the Bald, King of West Francia. He was the father of two kings of West Francia Odo and Robert I of France. Robert the Strong was the great-grandfather of Hugh Capet and thus the ancestor of all the Capetians
1363 Maria Queen of Sicily Queen of Sicily and Duchess of Athens and Neopatria from 1377 until her death.
1478 Louis V Elector Palatine a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty was prince elector of the Palatinate. His parents were Philip, Elector Palatine, and Margaret, a daughter of Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut
1486 Jacopo Sansovino an Italian sculptor and architect, known best for his works around the Piazza San Marco in Venice. Andrea Palladio, in the Preface to his Quattro Libri was of the opinion that Sansovino's Biblioteca Marciana was the best building erected since Antiquity. Giorgio Vasari uniquely printed his Vita of Sansovino separately
1489 Thomas Cranmer a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm
1492 Elizabeth Tudor (1492–1495) a Princess, the second daughter and fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York.
1511 Şahkulu the leader of the pro-Shia and pro-Safavid uprising in Anatolia - the Şahkulu Rebellion - directed against the Ottoman Empire in 1511. His death in battle signified the end of the uprising. He is buried in Amasya
1549 Duchess Sabine of Württemberg a princess of Württemberg by birth and by marriage, the first Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel.
1579 Janusz Radziwiłł (1579–1620) a noble and magnate of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was the deputy cup-bearer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1599, the castellan of Vilnius since 1619, and the starost of Borysów. Radziwiłł also held the title of Reichsfürst of the Holy Roman Empire
1597 Theodoor Rombouts a Flemish Baroque painter specializing in Caravaggesque genre scenes depicting lively dramatic gatherings.
1622 René-François de Sluse a Walloon mathematician and churchman, who served as the canon of Liège and abbot of Amay.
1647 Daniel Finch 2nd Earl of Nottingham an English Tory statesman during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
1665 Samuel Penhallow a Cornish colonist and historian and militia leader in present-day Maine during Queen Anne's War and Father Rale's War. He was the commander at Fort Menaskoux and was attacked during the Northeast Coast Campaign
1667 Pietro Ottoboni (cardinal) an Italian cardinal and grandnephew of Pope Alexander VIII. He is remembered especially as a great patron of music and art. Ottoboni was the last person to hold the curial office of Cardinal-nephew, which was abolished by Alexander VIII's successor, Pope Innocent XII, in 1692. Ottoboni "loved pomp, prodigality and sensual pleasure, but was in the same time kind, ready to serve and charitable"
1695 Louis Charles César Le Tellier a French military commander and Marshal of France.
1698 Francesco III d'Este Duke of Modena Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1737 until his death.
1714 Christoph Willibald Gluck a German composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period. After many years at the Habsburg court at Vienna, Gluck brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices that many intellectuals had been campaigning for over the years. With a series of radical new works in the 1760s, among them Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste, he broke the stranglehold that Metastasian opera seria had enjoyed for much of the century
1716 Jan Jakub Zamoyski a Polish nobleman.
1724 Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock a German poet. His best known work is his epic poem Der Messias. His service to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models
1738 Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu a French explorer, hydrographer and politician. He was Minister of the Navy under Louis XVI, and a member of the Institut de France, as well as the brother of the botanist Marc Antoine Louis Claret de la Tourette
1747 Rose Bertin a French milliner and dressmaker to Queen Marie Antoinette. She was the first celebrated French fashion designer and is widely credited with having brought fashion and haute couture to the forefront of popular culture
1756 Christian Gottfried Körner a German jurist. His home was a literary and musical salon, and he was a friend of Friedrich Schiller
1790 Leopold Prince of Salerno a member of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and a Prince of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
1796 Michael Thonet a German-Austrian cabinet maker.
1800 Piotr Michałowski a Polish painter of the Romantic period, especially known for his many portraits, and oil studies of horses. Broadly educated, he was also a social activist, legal advocate, city administrator and President of the Kraków Agricultural Society. The Sukiennice Museum, a division of the National Museum in Kraków, contains a room named after him and devoted to Michałowski's work
1802 Alexandros Soutzos a Phanariote Greek who ruled as Prince of Moldavia July 10, 1801 – October 1, 1802 and Prince of Wallachia. Born in Istanbul, he had earlier been a Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire
1807 Arthur Conolly a British intelligence officer, explorer and writer. He was a captain of the 6th Bengal Light Cavalry in the service of the British East India Company. He participated in many reconnaissance missions into Central Asia and coined the term The Great Game to describe the struggle between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for domination over Central Asia
1810 Robert Toombs an American and Confederate political leader, Whig Party senator from Georgia, a founding father of the Confederacy, its first Secretary of State, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War of 1861-1865. He feuded bitterly with Confederate President Jefferson Davis. According to Jacob Clawson, he was "a bullish politician whose blend of acerbic wit, fiery demeanor, and political tact aroused the full spectrum of emotions from his constituents and colleagues.... could not balance his volatile personality with his otherwise keen political skill."
1819 Charles-Louis Hanon a French piano pedagogue and composer. He is best known for his work The Virtuoso Pianist in 60 Exercises, which has become the most widely used set of exercises in modern piano teaching. He was born in Renescure, France in 1819, and died in Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1900
1820 George Law Curry a United States political figure and newspaper publisher predominantly in what became the state of Oregon. A native of Pennsylvania, he published a newspaper in Louis, Missouri, before traveling the Oregon Trail to the unorganized Oregon Country. A Democrat, Curry served in the new Oregon Territory's government as a representative to the legislature and as Territorial Secretary before appointment as the last Governor of the Oregon Territory. Curry County in Southern Oregon is named in his honor
1825 Émile Ollivier a French statesman. Starting as an avid republican opposed to Emperor Napoleon III, he pushed the Emperor toward liberal reforms and in turn came increasingly into Napoleon's grip. He entered the cabinet and was the prime minister when Napoleon fell
1831 Alexander Bernardazzi a Russian architect best known for his work in Odessa and Chişinău.
1840 Francis Amasa Walker an American economist, statistician, journalist, educator, academic administrator, and military officer in the Union Army.
1841 Alexander Mikhaylovich Zaytsev a Russian chemist from Kazan. He worked on organic compounds and proposed Zaitsev's rule, which predicts the product composition of an elimination reaction
1842 Alfred Nicolas Rambaud a French historian.
1842 Albert Ladenburg a German chemist.
1843 Antonio Labriola an Italian Marxist theoretician. Although an academic philosopher and never an active member of any Marxist political party, his thought exerted influence on many political theorists in Italy during the early 20th century, including the founder of the Italian Liberal Party, Benedetto Croce and the leaders of the Italian Communist Party, Antonio Gramsci and Amadeo Bordiga
1847 Julien Foucaud a French botanist.
1847 Marcel Alexandre Bertrand a French geologist born in Paris. He was the son of mathematician Joseph Louis François Bertrand , and son-in-law to physicist Éleuthère Mascart
1849 Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (1849–1919) a Queen consort of Bavaria. She was the daughter and only child of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. She was the last Queen of Bavaria
1850 Robert Ridgway an American ornithologist specializing in systematics. He was appointed in 1880 by Spencer Fullerton Baird, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, to be the first full-time curator of birds at the United States National Museum, a title which he held until his death. In 1883, he helped found the American Ornithologists' Union, where he served as officer and journal editor. Ridgway was an outstanding descriptive taxonomist, capping his life work with The Birds of North and Middle America. In his lifetime, he was unmatched in the number of North American bird species that he described for science. As technical illustrator, Ridgway used his own paintings and outline drawings to complement his writing. He also published two books that systematized color names for describing birds, A Nomenclature of Colors for Naturalists and Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. Ornithologists all over the world continue to cite Ridgway's color studies and books
1852 William Burnside an English mathematician. He is known mostly as an early researcher in the theory of finite groups
1854 Narcisse Théophile Patouillard a French pharmacist and mycologist.
1855 Louis Maxson an American archer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
1862 William Henry Bragg a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquely shared a Nobel Prize with his son William Lawrence Bragg – the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics: "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays". The mineral Braggite is named after him and his son. He was knighted in 1920
1862 Christopher Cradock a British officer of the Royal Navy.
1865 Lily Braun a German feminist writer.
1869 Hjalmar Söderberg a Swedish novelist, playwright, poet and journalist. His works often deal with melancholy and lovelorn characters, and offer a rich portrayal of contemporary Stockholm through the eyes of the flaneur. Söderberg is greatly appreciated in his native country, and is sometimes considered to be the equal of August Strindberg, Sweden's national author
1869 Liane de Pougy a Folies Bergère dancer renowned as one of Paris's most beautiful and notorious courtesans.