Died on July 2

626 Li Jiancheng a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Gaozu and therefore was designated crown prince after the founding of the dynasty in 618. However, although he himself was fairly capable as a general, he was overshadowed by the contributions of his younger brother Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, and the brothers contended for power for years, with Li Jiancheng aided by another younger brother, Li Yuanji the Prince of In 626, Li Shimin, fearing that Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji were about to kill him, laid an ambush for them at Xuanwu Gate outside the palace and killed them. Li Shimin then effectively forced Emperor Gaozu to yield the throne to him
626 Li Yuanji an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. He was a son of the dynasty's founder Emperor Gaozu of Tang , and in the intense rivalry developed between his older brothers Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince and Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, he sided with Li Jiancheng and often advocated drastic actions against Li Shimin, including assassination. In 626, Li Shimin, fearing that Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji were about to kill him, laid an ambush for them at Xuanwu Gate outside the palace and killed them. Li Shimin then effectively forced Emperor Gaozu to yield the throne to him
649 Li Jing (general) a general and one time chancellor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. In 630, Li Jing defeated the Eastern Tujue Jiali Khan Ashina Duobi with just 3,000 cavalry soldiers in a surprise attack, allowing Tang to subjugate Eastern Tujue and reduce it to a vassal state. He and Li Shiji were considered the two most prominent early Tang generals
862 Swithun an Anglo-Saxon bishop of Winchester and subsequently patron saint of Winchester Cathedral. His historical importance as bishop is overshadowed by his reputation for posthumous miracle-working. According to tradition, the weather on his feast day will continue for forty days. The precise meaning and origin of Swithun's name is unknown, but it most likely derives from the Old English word swiþ, 'strong'
936 Henry the Fowler the Duke of Saxony from 912 and the King of Germany from 919 until his death. First of the Ottonian Dynasty of German kings and emperors, he is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king
1215 Eisai a Japanese Buddhist priest, credited with bringing the Rinzai school of Zen Buddhism and green tea from China to Japan. He is often known simply as Eisai/Yōsai Zenji , literally "Zen master Eisai"
1226 Waleran III Duke of Limburg initially lord of Montjoie, then count of Luxembourg from 1214. He became count of Arlon and duke of Limburg on his father's death in 1221. He was the son of Henry III of Limburg and Sophia of Saarbrücken
1298 Adolf King of Germany the King of Germany from 1292 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, which would have secured him the title of Holy Roman Emperor. He was the second in the succession of so-called Grafenkönige
1419 Eberhard IV Count of Württemberg the ruling Count of Württemberg from 1417 until his death.
1429 Philipp I Count of Nassau-Weilburg Count of Nassau in Weilburg, Count of Saarbrücken and Seigneur of Commercy Château bas in 1371–1429.
1438 Ernest Duke of Bavaria from 1397 Duke of Bavaria-Munich.
1504 Stephen III of Moldavia Prince of Moldavia between 1457 and 1504 and the most prominent representative of the House of Mușat.
1536 John Stewart Duke of Albany Regent of the Kingdom of Scotland, Duke of Albany in peerage of Scotland and Count of Auvergne and Lauraguais in France.
1566 Nostradamus a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with much of the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events. Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power. Nevertheless, occasional commentators have successfully used a process of free interpretation and determined "twisting" of his words to predict an apparently imminent event. For example, in 1867 , Le Pelletier did so to anticipate either the triumph or the defeat of Napoleon III in a war that, in the event, begged to be identified as the Franco-Prussian War, while admitting that he could not specify either which or when
1576 Josias Simmler a Swiss theologian and classicist, author of the first book relating solely to the Alps.
1591 Vincenzo Galilei an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and the father of the famous astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei and of the lute virtuoso and composer Michelagnolo Galilei. He was a seminal figure in the musical life of the late Renaissance, and contributed significantly to the musical revolution which demarcates the beginning of the Baroque era
1613 Bartholomaeus Pitiscus a 16th-century German trigonometrist, astronomer and theologian who first coined the word Trigonometry.
1621 Thomas Harriot an English astronomer, mathematician, ethnographer, and translator. He is sometimes credited with the introduction of the potato to the British Isles. Harriot was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope, on 26 July 1609, over four months before Galileo
1650 Marion Delorme a French courtesan known for her relationships with the important men of her time.
1656 François-Marie comte de Broglie a prominent soldier and commander in the Thirty Years' War. Born in Piedmont, he was originally known as Francesco-Maria di Broglia, conte di Revel before becoming naturalized in France after 1643
1663 Thomas Selle a seventeenth-century German baroque composer.
1674 Eberhard III Duke of Württemberg ruled as Duke of Württemberg from 1628 until his death in 1674.
1694 Philip Christoph von Königsmarck a Swedish count of Brandenburgian extraction and a soldier. He was allegedly the lover of Sophia Dorothea, Princess of Celle, the wife of Duke George Louis of Brunswick and Lunenburg, the heir presumptive of the Principality of Calenberg, later to become Elector of Hanover and King of Great Britain
1700 Lambert Doomer a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
1710 Domenico Freschi an Italian composer and Roman Catholic priest. From the age of 22 until his death he worked as a church musician and composer in Vincenza. He was also active as an opera composer from 1671 to 1685
1740 Thomas Baker (antiquarian) an English antiquarian.
1743 Spencer Compton 1st Earl of Wilmington a British Whig statesman who served continuously in government from 1715 until his death. He served as the nominal head of government from 1742 until his death in 1743, but was merely a figurehead for the true leader of the government, Lord Carteret, the Secretary of State for the Northern Department. He is considered to have been Britain's second Prime Minister, after Sir Robert Walpole
1757 Siraj ud-Daulah the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The end of his reign marked the start of British East India Company rule over Bengal and later almost all of South Asia
1757 Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach a Duchess of Württemberg by marriage.
1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought
1778 Bathsheba Spooner the first woman to be executed in the United States by Americans rather than the British.
1791 Søren Abildgaard a Danish naturalist, writer and illustrator. He was born in Flekkefjord in Norway and died in Copenhagen in Denmark
1794 František Xaver Pokorný a Czech Classical era composer and violinist.
1796 Jan Krzysztof Kluk a Polish naturalist agronomist and entomologist.
1805 Patrick Russell (herpetologist) a Scottish surgeon and naturalist who worked in India. He studied the snakes of India and is considered the 'Father of Indian Ophiology'. Russell's viper, Daboia russelii, is named after him
1822 Denmark Vesey noted for his plan for "the rising," a major slave revolt in 1822; by some accounts, it would have involved thousands of slaves in the city and others on plantations miles away. A skilled carpenter, Vesey had won a lottery and purchased his freedom at age 32 in 1799. He had a good business and a family, but he could not buy his wife and children out of slavery. Vesey became active in the Second Presbyterian Church; in 1818 he was among the founders of an AME Church in the city. This was the first independent black denomination in the nation and had recently been organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Supported by white Charleston clergy, it rapidly attracted 1848 members, making this congregation the second-largest AME church in the nation. City officials twice closed it for violating slave laws related to times and purpose of gatherings
1833 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas a member of Argentina's Second Triumvirate from 19 August 1813 to 31 January 1814, after which he served as Supreme Director until 9 January 1815.
1841 Franz Ernst Heinrich Spitzner a German educator and philologist who specialized in Homeric studies. He was born in Trebitz, Saxony-Anhalt
1843 Samuel Hahnemann a German physician, best known for creating a system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
1844 Carl Blum a German singer, librettist, stage actor, director, guitarist and opera and song composer. Philip Bone printed that Blum was "a universal genius, uniting in one person the poet, the dramatist, composer, singer and performer." He was composer to the Court of the King of Prussia
1850 Robert Peel a British Conservative statesman, who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and again from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846. The son of a wealthy textile manufacturer, he served in many top offices over four decades. While serving as Home Secretary, Peel reformed and liberalised the criminal law, and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". He cut tariffs to stimulate business; to replace the lost revenue he pushed through a 3% income tax. He played a central role in making Free Trade a reality and set up a modern banking system. Initially a supporter of legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel eventually supported the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger". Peel has been criticised for his handling of the Irish famine. In 1834, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto, laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. Peel often started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure, then reversed himself and became the leader in supporting liberal legislation. This happened with the Test Act , Catholic Emancipation , the Reform Act of 1832, the income tax and most notably the repeal of the Corn Laws. Therefore many critics said he was a traitor to the Tory cause, or "a Liberal wolf in sheep's clothing" because his final position reflected liberal ideas. Historian A.J.P. Taylor says:
1852 Thomas Thomson (chemist) a Scottish chemist and mineralogist whose writings contributed to the early spread of Dalton's atomic theory.
1857 Carlo Pisacane an Italian patriot and one of the first Italian socialist thinkers.
1862 Charles Meyer a Prussian pianist and composer active in the early 19th century. He studied with John Field and was the piano teacher of Russian composer Mikhail Glinka and Polish composer Filipina Brzezinska-Szymanowska
1866 Antônio de Sousa Neto a Tatter Revolutionary leader. On 20 September 1836, Neto declared the independence of the Piratini Republic
1868 Ralph Abercromby 2nd Baron Dunfermline a Scottish nobleman and diplomat, styled The Honourable from 1839 to 1858.
1872 Alexander Hilferding a Russian linguist and folklorist of German descent who collected some 318 bylinas in the Russian North. A native of Warsaw, he assisted Nikolay Milyutin in reforming the administration of Congress Poland. In the late 1850s, he was a Russian diplomatic agent in Bosnia; he published several books about the country and its folklore. Hilferding was elected into the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1856. He died of typhoid while collecting folk songs in Kargopol, in the north of European Russia, and was later reburied in the Novodevichy Cemetery, Petersburg. Hilferding's collection of Slavonic manuscripts is preserved in the Russian National Library
1876 Giuseppe Ferrari (philosopher) an Italian philosopher, historian and politician.
1895 Mykhailo Drahomanov a Ukrainian political theorist, economist, historian, philosopher, ethnographer and public figure in Kiev. Born to a noble family of Petro Yakymovych Drahomanov who was of a Cossack descent. Mykhailo Drahomanov started his education at home, then studied at the Hadiach school, Poltava senior school and Kiev University. He was also an uncle of Ukrainian poet Larysa Kosach and brother - Olha Drahomanova-Kosach
1896 Alexander Lawton a lawyer, politician, diplomat, and brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.