July 2 events in history

437 Emperor Valentinian III, begins his reign over the Western Roman Empire. His mother Galla Placidia ends her regency, but continues to exercise political influence at the court in Rome
626 Li Shimin, the future Emperor Taizong of Tang, ambushes and kills his rival brothers Li Yuanji and Li Jiancheng in the Xuanwu Gate Incident
706 In China, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang inters the bodies of relatives in the Qianling Mausoleum, located on Mount Liang outside Chang'an
963 The imperial army proclaims Nicephorus Phocas Emperor of the Romans on the plains outside Cappadocian Caesarea
1298 The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg
1494 The Treaty of Tordesillas is ratified by Spain
1504 Bogdan III the One-Eyed becomes Voivode of Moldavia
1555 The Ottoman Admiral Turgut Reis sacks the Italian city of Paola
1561 Menas, Emperor of Ethiopia, defeats a revolt in Emfraz
1582 Battle of Yamazaki: Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeats Akechi Mitsuhide
1613 The first English expedition from Massachusetts against Acadia led by Samuel Argall takes place
1644 English Civil War: Battle of Marston Moor
1679 Europeans first visit Minnesota and see headwaters of Mississippi in an expedition led by Daniel Greysolon de Du Luth
1698 Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine
1776 The Continental Congress adopts a resolution severing ties with the Kingdom of Great Britain although the wording of the formal Declaration of Independence is not approved until July 4
1777 Vermont becomes the first American territory to abolish slavery
1822 Thirty-five slaves are hanged in South Carolina, including Denmark Vesey, after being accused of organizing a slave rebellion
1823 Bahia Independence Day: The end of Portuguese rule in Brazil, with the final defeat of the Portuguese crown loyalists in the province of Bahia
1839 Twenty miles off the coast of Cuba, 53 rebelling African slaves led by Joseph Cinqué take over the slave ship Amistad
1839 Abdülmecid I became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam
1853 The Russian Army crossed the Pruth river into the Danubian Principalities, Moldavia and Wallachia—providing the spark that set off the Crimean War
1871 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy enters Rome after having conquered it from the Papal States
1881 Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds U.S. President James Garfield, who eventually dies from an infection on September 19
1890 The U.S. Congress passes the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1897 Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi obtains a patent for radio in London
1900 The first Zeppelin flight takes place on Lake Constance near Friedrichshafen, Germany
1917 The East St. Louis Riots end
1921 World War I: U.S. President Warren G. Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Imperial Germany
1934 The Night of the Long Knives ends with the death of Ernst Röhm
1937 Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan are last heard from over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first equatorial round-the-world flight
1940 Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose is arrested and detained in Calcutta
1950 The Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji in Kyoto, Japan burns down
1962 The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas
1964 U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places
1966 The French military explodes a nuclear test bomb codenamed Aldébaran in Mururoa, their first nuclear test in the Pacific
1976 Fall of the Republic of Vietnam; Communist North Vietnam declares their union to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
1986 Rodrigo Rojas and Carmen Gloria Quintana were burnt alive during a street demonstration against the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet in Chile
2000 Vicente Fox Quesada is elected the first President of México from an opposition party, the Partido Acción Nacional, after more than 70 years of continuous rule by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional
2001 The AbioCor self-contained artificial heart is first implanted
2002 Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon
2005 The Live 8 benefit concerts takes place in the G8 states and in South Africa, More than 1,000 musicians performed and are broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks
2013 The International Astronomical Union names Pluto's fourth and fifth moons, Kerberos and Styx