Born on July 20

647 Yazid I the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I and ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE
682 Taichō a shugendō monk in Nara period Japan. He was raised in Echizen Province, which was in the southern portion of present day Fukui Prefecture. He was the second son of Mikami Yasuzumi. He is said to be the first person to reach the top of Mount Haku in neighboring Kaga Province and other peaks in the Ryōhaku Mountains
985 Antipope Boniface VII an antipope. He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974; he carried off a vast treasure, and returned in 984 and removed Pope John XIV from office, who had been elected in his absence, by murder. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances
1304 Petrarch an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca. Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages"
1375 Richard of Conisburgh 3rd Earl of Cambridge the second son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and Isabella of Castile. At the age of forty he was beheaded for his part in the Southampton Plot, a conspiracy against King Henry He was the father of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandfather of King Edward IV and King Richard III
1519 Pope Innocent IX Pope from 29 October to 30 December 1591. Prior to his short papacy, he had been a Canon Lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV
1537 Arnaud d'Ossat a French diplomat and writer, and a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, whose personal tact and diplomatic skill steered the perilous course of French diplomacy with the Papacy in the reign of Henry IV of France.
1591 Anne Hutchinson a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters
1592 Johan Björnsson Printz governor from 1643 until 1653 of the Swedish colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River in North America.
1620 Nikolaes Heinsius the Elder a Dutch classical scholar and poet, son of Daniel Heinsius.
1638 Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve conventionally named the "Gyldenløve War" after him. He was an acknowledged illegitimate son of King Frederick III of Denmark and Norway
1646 Eusèbe Renaudot a French theologian and Orientalist.
1656 Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire. His influential book A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture was one of the first and most popular comparative studies of world architecture. His major works include Schönbrunn Palace, Karlskirche, and the Austrian National Library in Vienna, and Schloss Klessheim, Holy Trinity Church, and the Collegiate Church in Salzburg
1665 Frederick Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg by birth Count Palatine of Neuburg and Imperial General.
1671 Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt a Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, Imperial Field marshal and Governor of Mantua.
1673 John Dalrymple 2nd Earl of Stair a Scottish soldier and diplomat. He served in the Nine Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession and, after a period as British Ambassador in Paris, became a military commander at the Battle of Dettingen during the War of the Austrian Succession
1694 Christian Gottlieb Jöcher a German academic, librarian and lexicographer.
1700 Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau a French physician, naval engineer and botanist.
1721 Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry also sometimes written Joseph-Gaspard. He was a military engineer and a political figure in Lower Canada. During the Seven Years' War he proved himself to be an outstanding officer and was one of only a few colonial officers held in high esteem by the Marquis de Montcalm. In recognition of his military service, in 1759 he was made a Chevalier of the Order of Saint Louis. n 1763, after the British Conquest of New France, he and his wife, Louise Martel de Brouage, were the first French Canadian couple to be presented to the English Court, drawing the compliment from King George III that if all Canadian ladies resembled Mme de Léry then he had "indeed made a conquest"
1725 Joaquín Ibarra a Spanish printer who was known for several important technical developments on the work of the press, books and typography. His work was extremely anticipated
1748 Giulio Gabrielli the Younger an Italian Catholic Church's cardinal. He spent most of his career in the Roman Curia
1754 Antoine Destutt de Tracy a French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher who coined the term "ideology".
1757 Garsevan Chavchavadze a Georgian politician and diplomat primarily known as a Georgian ambassador to Imperial Russia.
1758 Marguerite-Élie Guadet a French political figure of the Revolutionary period.
1762 Jakob Haibel an Austrian composer, operatic tenor and choirmaster.
1766 Thomas Bruce 7th Earl of Elgin a Scottish nobleman and diplomat, known for the removal of marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens.
1768 Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova a Russian serf actress and soprano opera singer.
1774 Auguste de Marmont a French general and nobleman who rose to the rank of Marshal of France and was awarded the title Duc de Raguse. He is best known for deserting Napoleon in 1814
1776 Ignaz Schuppanzigh a violinist, friend and teacher of Beethoven, and leader of Count Razumovsky's private string quartet. Schuppanzigh and his quartet premiered many of Beethoven's string quartets, and in particular, the late string quartets. The Razumovsky quartet, which Schuppanzigh founded in late 1808, is considered to be the first professional string quartet. Until the founding of this quartet, quartet music was played primarily by amateurs or by professional musicians who joined together on an ad hoc basis
1783 Job von Witzleben a Prussian lieutenant general, adjutant-general to the king, and minister of war.
1785 Josif Rajačić a metropolitan of Sremski Karlovci, Serbian Patriarch, administrator of Serbian Vojvodina and baron.
1789 Mahmud II the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. He was born in the Topkapi Palace, Constantinople, the posthumous son of Sultan Abdulhamid His reign is notable mostly for the extensive administrative, military and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated into the Decree of Tanzimat that was carried out by his sons Abdülmecid I and Abdülaziz In 1826 he abolished the Janissary corps of 135,000 men and executed thousands of its leaders, thereby removing a major obstacle to army reform
1790 Francisco Acuña de Figueroa an Uruguayan poet and writer. He was born in Montevideo, on September 3, 1791 and died on October 6, 1862. He was the son of the Treasurer of the Royal Treasury, Jacinto Acuña de Figueroa
1803 Dudley Costello an Anglo-Irish soldier, journalist and novelist.
1804 Richard Owen an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist. Despite being a controversial figure, Owen is generally considered to have been an outstanding naturalist with a remarkable gift for interpreting fossils
1810 Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal a Prussian Field Marshal, chiefly remembered for his decisive intervention at the Battle of Königgrätz in 1866, his victories at Wörth and Weissenburg, and above all his refusal to bombard Paris in 1870 during the siege, which he directed.
1811 James Bruce 8th Earl of Elgin a British colonial administrator and diplomat. He was the Governor General of the Province of Canada, a High Commissioner in charge of opening trades with China and Japan, and Viceroy of India. As British High Commissioner in China during the Second Opium War, in 1860 he ordered the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing in retaliation for the imprisonment, torture, and execution of almost twenty European and Indian prisoners
1812 Johann Gildemeister a German Orientalist born in Kröpelin.
1816 Sir William Bowman 1st Baronet an English surgeon, histologist and anatomist. He is best known for his research using microscopes to study various human organs, though during his lifetime he pursued a successful career as an ophthalmologist
1820 John M. Jones a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He fought at the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed in action at the Battle of the Wilderness
1821 Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este Archduke of Austria-Este and Prince of Modena.
1822 Gregor Mendel a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science of genetics. Though farmers had known for centuries that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance
1830 Clements Markham an English geographer, explorer, and writer. He was secretary of the Royal Geographical Society between 1863 and 1888, and later served as the Society's president for a further 12 years. In the latter capacity he was mainly responsible for organising the National Antarctic Expedition of 1901–04, and for launching the polar career of Robert Falcon Scott
1833 Baron Karl von Hasenauer an important Austrian architect and key representative of the Historismus school.
1835 Ernest Giles an Australian explorer who led five major expeditions in central Australia.
1835 Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg a niece of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. She was the second daughter of Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Princess Feodora of Leiningen, older half-sister of the British queen. She is a matrillineal ancestor of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Felipe VI of Spain
1838 Augustin Daly one of the most influential men in American theatre during his lifetime. Drama critic, theatre manager, playwright, and adapter, he became the first recognized stage director in America. He exercised a fierce and tyrannical control over all aspects of his productions. His rules of conduct for actors and actresses imposed heavy fines for late appearances and forgotten lines and earned him the title "the autocrat of the stage." He formed a permanent company in New York and opened Daly's Theatre in New York in 1879 and a second one in London in 1893
1838 Sir George Trevelyan 2nd Baronet a British statesman and author. In a ministerial career stretching almost 30 years, he was most notably twice Secretary for Scotland under William Ewart Gladstone and the Earl of Rosebery. He broke with Gladstone over the 1886 Irish Home Rule Bill, but after modifications were made to the bill he re-joined the Liberal Party shortly afterwards. Also a writer and historian, Trevelyan published The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, his maternal uncle, in 1876
1844 John Douglas 9th Marquess of Queensberry a Scottish nobleman, remembered for lending his name and patronage to the "Marquess of Queensberry Rules" that formed the basis of modern boxing and for his role in the downfall of author and playwright Oscar Wilde. He was notorious for his abuse, immorality, and his reputation as a lunatic
1845 Eduard Sachau a German orientalist.