Died on July 20

384 Pope Timothy I of Alexandria 22nd Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of Mark.
940 Ibn Muqla an Persian official of the Abbasid Caliphate who rose to high state posts in the early 10th century. His career culminated in his own assumption of the vizierate at Baghdad thrice, in 928–930, 932–933 and 934–936. Unable to successfully challenge the growing power of regional emirs, he lost his position to the first amir al-umara, Ibn Ra'iq, and died in prison. He was also a noted calligrapher
1031 Robert II of France King of the Franks from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine
1039 Conrad II Duke of Carinthia the Salian duke of Carinthia from 1035. His parents were Conrad I and Matilda of Swabia. His father died in 1011 when Conrad the Younger was a minor. Adalbero of Eppenstein was given the duchy of Carinthia. Instead Conrad became count in Nahegau, Speyergau, and Wormsgau
1109 Eupraxia of Kiev the daughter of Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev. She married Henry IV of Germany and took the name Adelaide
1156 Emperor Toba the 74th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1320 Oshin King of Armenia king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1307 to 1320. He was a member of the Hetoumid-family, the son of Leo II, King of Armenia and Queen Keran
1387 Robert IV of Artois Count of Eu Count of Eu from April to July 1387.
1387 Joanna Duchess of Durazzo the eldest daughter and eldest surviving child of Charles, Duke of Durazzo, and his wife, Maria of Calabria. She succeeded as duchess on the death of her father in 1348 when she was only a child of four years old. Joanna was a member of the House of Anjou-Durazzo
1398 Roger Mortimer 4th Earl of March considered the heir presumptive to King Richard II.
1453 Enguerrand de Monstrelet a French chronicler. He was born in Picardy, most likely into a family of the minor nobility
1454 John II of Castile King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454.
1499 Melchior Russ born of an old noble family in Lucerne.
1524 Claude of France queen consort of France and duchess regnant of Brittany. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany, as well as the first spouse of Francis I of France
1526 García Jofre de Loaísa a 16th-century Spanish explorer ordered by King Charles I of Spain to command an expedition to Asia, known as the Loaísa expedition, which in 1525 was sent by the western route to colonize the Spice Islands in the East Indies, thus crossing the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. More than 450 men were aboard, including different kinds of trades and administrative staff, intended to establish a permanent Spanish settlements in the Spanish East Indies
1609 Federico Zuccari an Italian Mannerist painter and architect, active both in Italy and abroad.
1613 Sebastian Lubomirski a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman.
1616 Hugh O'Neill Earl of Tyrone an Irish Gaelic chieftain, Earl of Tyrone and was later created The Ó Néill. O'Neill's career was played out against the background of the Tudor conquest of Ireland, and he is best known for leading the resistance during the Nine Years' War, the strongest threat to English authority in Ireland since the revolt of Silken Thomas
1627 Guðbrandur Þorláksson an Icelandic mathematician, cartographer and clergyman.
1636 Albrycht Władysław Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble. Castellan of Troki from 1626 until 1633, castellan of Wilno from 1633. The 3rd ordynat of the Nieśwież Fee Tail, stolnik of Lithuania since 1620 and krajczy of Lithuania since 1622. Starost of Ryki and Szerszewy
1649 Padovanino an Italian painter of the late-Mannerist and early-Baroque Venetian school, best known for having mentored Pietro Liberi, Giulio Carpioni, and Bartolommeo Scaligero. He was the son of Dario Varotari the Elder and the brother of Chiara Varotari, who accompanied him on his travels and assisted with his work
1704 Peregrine White the first known English child born to the Pilgrims in America. In 1620 his parents, William White and his pregnant wife Susanna, with their son Resolved White and two servants came on the historic voyage of the Pilgrim ship Mayflower. Peregrine White was born while the Mayflower lay at anchor in the harbor at Cape Cod. In later life he became a person of note in Plymouth Colony, active in both military and government affairs
1726 Henri-Jacques Nompar de Caumont duc de La Force a French nobleman and peer, the son of Jacques-Nompar II de Caumont, duc de La Force and Suzanne de Beringhen. He was a member of the Académie française
1745 Francesco della Penna a Capuchin missionary to Tibet who became prefect of the Tibetan Mission.
1752 Johann Christoph Pepusch a German-born composer who spent most of his working life in England.
1762 Paul Troger an Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker of the late Baroque period. Troger's illusionistic ceiling paintings in fresco are notable for their dramatic vitality of movement and their palette of light colors
1795 Grigory Shelikhov a Russian seafarer and merchant born in Rylsk.
1808 François-Hippolyte Barthélémon a French violinist, pedagogue, and composer active in England.
1811 Jean-François de Bourgoing a French diplomat, writer and translator. A commander of the légion d'honneur, he was also a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, a member of the Copenhagen Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1810, a knight then a baron de l'Empire, and a knight of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star
1815 Vladimir Mikhailovich Yashvil a Russian general of Georgian noble origin personally involved in the assassination of Paul I of Russia. He was a brother of General Lev Yashvil
1816 Gavrila Derzhavin arguably one of the greatest Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman. Although his works are traditionally considered literary classicism, his best verse is rich with antitheses and conflicting sounds in a way reminiscent of John Donne and other metaphysical poets
1817 Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Suard a French journalist, translator and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment. He was born in Besançon and died in Paris
1819 John Playfair a Scottish scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He is perhaps best known for his book Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth , which summarised the work of James Hutton. It was through this book that Hutton's principle of uniformitarianism, later taken up by Charles Lyell, first reached a wide audience. Playfair's textbook Elements of Geometry made a brief expression of Euclid's parallel postulate known now as Playfair's axiom
1824 Maine de Biran a French philosopher.
1851 Horace François Bastien Sébastiani de La Porta a French soldier, diplomat, and politician, who served as Naval Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of State under the July Monarchy. Joining the French Revolutionary Army in his youth, he rose in its ranks and became a supporter of Napoleon Bonaparte. Sébastiani was the French Consulate's emissary to the Levant, notably drafting plans to reconquer Ottoman Egypt, and later served as the Empire's Ambassador to the Porte. In the latter capacity, he attempted to increase French influence and signaled pro-Russian activities in the Danubian Principalities, thus provoking the War of 1806–1812. In 1807, Sébastiani organized the defense of Constantinople during the Dardanelles Operation. Recalled on British pressures after the deposition of Selim III, he served in the Peninsular War and resided in the Alhambra, took part in the unsuccessful invasion of Russia, and defended the Champagne region in front of the Sixth Coalition
1865 Karl Lambert Russian General of Cavalry, Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland from August to October 1861.
1866 Bernhard Riemann an influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity.
1867 Mirko Petrović-Njegoš a Montenegrin soldier, diplomat and poet, belonging to the House of Petrović-Njegoš. He was given the title of Grand Duke of Grahovo
1870 Lucien-Anatole Prévost-Paradol a French journalist and essayist.
1870 Albrecht von Graefe a pioneer of German ophthalmology. Graefe was born in Finkenheerd, Brandenburg, the son of Karl Ferdinand von Graefe. He was the father of the far right politician Albrecht von Graefe
1871 François Delsarte a French musician and teacher. Though he achieved some success as a composer, he is chiefly known as a teacher in singing and declamation. He went on to develop an acting style that attempted to connect the inner emotional experience of the actor with a systematized set of gestures and movements based upon his own observations of human interaction. This “Delsarte” method became so popular that it was taught throughout the world, but particularly in America, by many teachers who did not fully understand or communicate the emotional connections behind the gestures, and as a result the method devolved into melodramatic posing, the kind in response to which Constantin Stanislavski would later develop his inner psychological methods
1877 Federico Errázuriz Zañartu a Chilean political figure. He served as the president of Chile between 1871 and 1876
1878 George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana) a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was appointed military and 18th Governor of Louisiana by General Benjamin Butler in June 1862. He later served as a United States federal judge
1883 Iwakura Tomomi a Japanese statesman during the Bakumatsu and Meiji period. The former 500 Yen banknote issued by the Bank of Japan carried his portrait
1888 Paul Langerhans a German pathologist, physiologist and biologist.
1889 Elvira Madigan a Danish tightrope walker and trick rider, whose illicit affair and dramatic death at the hands of her lover were the subject of the Swedish film of 1967.
1889 Nikolai Blagoveshchensky a Russian writer and journalist.
1889 Gustav Lange a German composer.
1891 Frederick Weld a New Zealand politician and a governor of various British colonies. He was the sixth Premier of New Zealand, and later served as Governor of Western Australia, Governor of Tasmania, and Governor of the Straits Settlements
1897 Jean Ingelow an English poet and novelist.