July 20 events in history

70 Siege of Jerusalem – Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, storms the Fortress of Antonia north of the Temple Mount. The Roman army is drawn into street fights with the Zealots
911 Rollo lays siege to Chartres
1189 Richard I of England officially invested as Duke of Normandy
1304 Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle – King Edward I of England takes the stronghold using the War Wolf
1402 Ottoman-Timurid Wars: Battle of Ankara – Timur, ruler of Timurid Empire, defeats forces of the Ottoman Empire sultan Bayezid I
1592 During the first Japanese invasion of Korea, Japanese forces led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi captured Pyongyang, although they were ultimately unable to hold it
1738 Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye reaches the western shore of Lake Michigan
1799 Tekle Giyorgis I begins his first of five reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia
1807 Nicéphore Niépce is awarded a patent by Napoleon for the Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, after it successfully powered a boat upstream on the river Saône in France
1810 Citizens of Bogotá, New Granada declare independence from Spain
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek – Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman
1866 Austro-Prussian War: Battle of Lissa – The Austrian Navy , led by Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, defeats the Italian Navy near the island of Vis in the Adriatic Sea
1871 British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada
1885 The Football Association legalizes professionalism in association football under pressure from the British Football Association
1903 The Ford Motor Company ships its first car
1917 World War I: The Corfu Declaration, which leads to the creation of the post-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, is signed by the Yugoslav Committee and Kingdom of Serbia
1922 The League of Nations awards mandates of Togoland to France and Tanganyika to the United Kingdom
1932 In Washington, D.C., police fire tear gas on World War I veterans, part of the Bonus Expeditionary Force, who attempt to march to the White House
1934 Labor unrest in the U.S.: Police in Minneapolis fire upon striking truck drivers, during the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934, killing two and wounding sixty-seven
1934 1934 West Coast waterfront strike: In Seattle, Washington, police fire tear gas on and club 2,000 striking longshoremen. The governor of Oregon calls out the National Guard to break a strike on the Portland docks
1935 Switzerland: A Royal Dutch Airlines plane en route from Milan to Frankfurt crashes into a Swiss mountain, killing thirteen
1936 The Montreux Convention is signed in Switzerland, authorizing Turkey to fortify the Dardanelles and Bosphorus but guaranteeing free passage to ships of all nations in peacetime
1938 The United States Department of Justice files suit in New York, New York against the motion picture industry charging violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act in regards to the studio system. The case would eventually result in a break-up of the industry in 1948
1940 California opens its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway
1940 Denmark leaves the League of Nations
1941 Soviet leader Joseph Stalin consolidates the Commissariats of Home Affairs and National Security to form the NKVD and names Lavrenti Beria its chief
1944 World War II: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg
1949 Israel and Syria sign a truce to end their nineteen-month war
1950 Cold War: In Philadelphia, Harry Gold pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs
1951 King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian while attending Friday prayers in Jerusalem
1954 Germany: Otto John, head of West Germany's secret service, defects to East Germany
1960 The Polaris missile is successfully launched from a submarine, the USS George Washington, for the first time
1960 Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) elects Sirimavo Bandaranaike Prime Minister, the world's first elected female head of government
1961 French military forces break the Tunisian siege of Bizerte
1964 Vietnam War: Viet Cong forces attack the capital of Dinh Tuong Province, Cai Be, killing 11 South Vietnamese military personnel and 40 civilians (30 of which are children)
1968 The first International Special Olympics Summer Games are held at Soldier Field in Chicago, Ill, with about 1,000 athletes with intellectual disabilities
1969 A cease fire is announced between Honduras and El Salvador, six days after the beginning of the "Football War"
1969 Apollo program: Apollo 11's crew successfully makes the first landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon later that day (Eastern Time Zone)
1974 Turkish occupation of Cyprus: Forces from Turkey invade Cyprus after a coup d'état, organised by the dictator of Greece, against president Makarios
1976 The American Viking 1 lander successfully lands on Mars
1977 The Central Intelligence Agency releases documents under the Freedom of Information Act revealing it had engaged in mind control experiments
1982 Hyde Park and Regents Park bombings: The Provisional IRA detonates two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in central London, killing eight soldiers, wounding forty-seven people, and leading to the deaths of seven horses
1985 The government of Aruba passes legislation to secede from the Netherlands Antilles
1989 Burma's ruling junta puts opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest
1992 Václav Havel resigns as president of Czechoslovakia
1997 The fully restored USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) celebrates its 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years
1999 The Chinese Communist Party begins a persecution campaign against Falun Gong, arresting thousands nationwide