Born on July 21

356 Alexander the Great a King of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest ancient India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders
541 Emperor Wen of Sui the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty. He was a hard-working administrator and a micromanager. As a Buddhist, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state. He is regarded as one of the most important emperors in Chinese history, reunifying China in 589 after centuries of division since the fall of Western Jin Dynasty in 316. During his reign began the construction of the Grand Canal
628 Emperor Gaozong of Tang the third emperor of the Tang Dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683. Emperor Gaozong was the son of Emperor Taizong and Empress Zhangsun
1006 Gisela of Burgundy the daughter of Conrad the Peaceful, King of Burgundy and Adelaide of Bellay, Conrad's second wife whom he probably married for love, as he had already produced an heir by his first, more dynastic, marriage and was thus free to wed as he pleased. Gisela was a niece of the empress Adelaide
1414 Pope Sixtus IV Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. He also established the Vatican Archives. Sixtus furthered the agenda of the Spanish Inquisition and annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. He was famed for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi Conspiracy
1476 Alfonso I d'Este Duke of Ferrara Duke of Ferrara during the time of the War of the League of Cambrai.
1515 Philip Neri an Italian priest noted for founding a society of secular clergy called the "Congregation of the Oratory".
1535 García Hurtado de Mendoza 5th Marquis of Cañete a Spanish soldier, governor of Chile, and later viceroy of Peru. He is often known simply as "Marquis of Cañete". Belonging to an influential family of Spanish noblemen Hurtado de Mendoza successfully fought the native Mapuche during his stay as Governor of Chile, and got the city of Mendoza named after him. In his later position as Viceroy of Peru he sponsored Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira expedition to the Salomon Islands and had the Marquesas Islands named after him
1616 Anna de' Medici Archduchess of Austria a daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Maria Maddalena of Austria. A patron of the arts, she married Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria in 1646. They were the parents of Claudia Felicitas of Austria, Holy Roman Empress
1620 Jean Picard a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. He died in Paris, France. He was the first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy in a survey conducted in 1669–70, for which he is honored with a pyramid at Juvisy-sur-Orge. Guided by Maurolycus's methodology and Snellius's mathematics for doing so, Picard achieved this by measuring one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using triangulation along thirteen triangles stretching from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens. His measurements produced a result of 110.46 km for one degree of latitude, which gives a corresponding terrestrial radius of 6328.9 The polar radius has now been measured at just over 6357 This was an error only 0.44% less than the modern value. This was another example of advances in astronomy and its tools making possible advances in cartography. Picard was the first to attach a telescope with crosswires to a quadrant, and one of the first to use a micrometer screw on his instruments. The quadrant he used to determine the size of the Earth had a radius of 38 inches and was graduated to quarter-minutes. The sextant he used to find the meridian had a radius of six feet, and was equipped with a micrometer to enable minute adjustments. These equipment improvements made the margin of error only ten seconds, as opposed to Tycho Brahe's four minutes of error. This made his measurements 24 times as accurate. Isaac Newton was to use this value in his theory of universal gravitation
1654 Pedro Calungsod a Roman Catholic young Filipino blessed and was a migrant, sacristan and missionary catechist, who along with the Spanish Jesuit missionary, Diego Luis de San Vitores, suffered religious persecution and martyrdom in Guam for their missionary work in 1672.
1664 Matthew Prior an English poet and diplomat. He is also known as a contributor to The Examiner
1668 Frederick Henry Duke of Saxe-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt a German prince of the House of Wettin.
1693 Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle
1710 Paul Möhring a German physician, botanist and zoologist.
1714 Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia (1714–1728) a Russian Grand Duchess.
1754 Ernst von Rüchel a Prussian general who led an army corps in a crushing defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Jena on 14 October 1806. He commanded troops from the Kingdom of Prussia in several battles during the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 and 1794. Afterward he held various appointments as a diplomat and a military inspector. In 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars he held an important army command but has been criticized for his actions at Jena. Wounded, he managed to escape the French pursuit, but never commanded troops in combat again
1783 Charles Tristan marquis de Montholon a French general during the Napoleonic Wars. He chose to go into exile on Saint Helena with the ex-Emperor after Napoleon's second abdication
1789 Vasil Aprilov a Bulgarian educator. He studied in Moscow, graduated from a high school in Braşov and then pursued a medical degree in Vienna. After 1811 he was a merchant in Odessa. He initially participated in the Greek revolutionary movement, but later devoted himself to the Bulgarian Renaissance. He gathered Bulgarian folk songs. In his will he left a large amount of money for building the Aprilovska High School in Gabrovo. This was to be the first Bulgarian secular school using the Bell-Lancaster method. The emergence of this school gave a boost to Bulgarian education and soon other schools were opened all over the Bulgarian-populated regions of the Ottoman empire
1790 Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse a German historian born in Oldenburg.
1795 George Gawler the second governor of South Australia; from 17 October 1838 until 15 May 1841.
1799 Pauline-Marie Jaricot a French laywoman, the foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Living Rosary Association.
1801 Jules Pierre Rambur a French entomologist.
1808 Simion Bărnuțiu a Transylvanian-born Romanian historian, academic, philosopher, jurist, and liberal politician. A leader of the 1848 revolutionary movement of Transylvanian Romanians, he represented its Eastern Rite Catholic wing. Bărnuțiu lived for a large part of his life in Moldavia, and was for long a professor of philosophy at Academia Mihăileană and at the University of Iași
1810 Henri Victor Regnault a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. He was an early thermodynamicist and was mentor to William Thomson in the late 1840s
1816 Paul Reuter a journalist and media owner, and the founder of the Reuters news agency, since 2008 part of the Thomson Reuters conglomerate.
1821 Vasile Alecsandri a Romanian poet, playwright, politician, and diplomat. He collected Romanian folk songs and was one of the principal animators of the 19th century movement for Romanian cultural identity and union of Moldavia and Wallachia
1821 Prince Adolf of Auersperg a Bohemian and an Austrian statesman.
1825 Práxedes Mateo Sagasta a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister on eight occasions between 1870 and 1902—always in charge of the Liberal Party—as part of the turno pacifico, alternating with the Liberal-Conservative leader Antonio Cánovas. A Freemason, he was known for possessing an excellent oratorical talent
1826 Edward Stanley 15th Earl of Derby a British statesman. He served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs twice, from 1866 to 1868 and from 1874 to 1878
1831 Jean Casimir Félix Guyon a French surgeon and urologist born in Saint-Denis, Ile-Bourbon.
1835 Désirée Artôt a Belgian soprano , who was famed in German and Italian opera and sang mainly in Germany. In 1868 she was engaged, briefly, to Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who claimed she was the only woman he ever loved, and who may have coded her name into works such as his First Piano Concerto and the Romeo and Juliet Fantasy-Overture. After her 1869 marriage to the Spanish baritone Mariano Padilla y Ramos, she was known as Désirée Artôt de Padilla or Désirée Artôt-Padilla
1844 Luciano Cordeiro a Portuguese writer.
1848 Gustave Bloch a French Jewish historian of ancient history born in Fegersheim, a commune located in the department of Bas-Rhin. He was the father of historian Marc Bloch , who along with Lucien Febvre , was co-founder of the École des Annales
1848 Johannes Volkelt a German philosopher.
1851 Sam Bass (outlaw) a 19th-century American Old West train robber and outlaw.
1853 Gustav Dannreuther a violinist and conductor from Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1871, at the age of 18, he was sent to the Berlin University of the Arts, where he studied violin under Heinrich De Ahna, famed violinist Joseph Joachim , and Heitel
1857 Max Weiss an Austrian chess player born in the Kingdom of Hungary.
1858 Lovis Corinth a German painter and printmaker whose mature work realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism.
1858 Alfred Henry O'Keeffe a notable New Zealand artist and art teacher, who spent the majority of his life in Dunedin. During the first quarter of the twentieth century, he was one of the few New Zealand artists to engage with new ideas while staying in New Zealand. At this time most adventurous New Zealand painters, such as Frances Hodgkins, went overseas. He has sometimes been described as a Vasari - a recorder of artists and their doings - based upon his published recollections, which are the only first hand published account of that milieu
1858 Maria Christina of Austria Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, and the vacancy of the throne between her husband's death and her son's birth
1863 C. Aubrey Smith an England Test cricketer who became a stage and film actor, acquiring a niche as the officer-and-gentleman type, as in the first sound version of The Prisoner of Zenda. In Hollywood, he organised English actors into a cricket team, playing formal matches that much intrigued local spectators
1864 Frances Folsom Cleveland Preston the wife of the President of the United States Grover Cleveland and the 23rd and 25th First Lady of the United States from 1886 to 1889 and again from 1893 to 1897. Becoming First Lady at age 21, she remains the youngest First Lady in history
1865 Auguste Cavadini a French sport shooter who competed in the late 19th century and early 20th century. He participated in Shooting at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and won a bronze medal with the military rifle team
1865 M. P. Shiel Matthew Phipps Shiell – known as P. Shiel – was a prolific British writer of West Indian descent. His legal surname remained "Shiell" though he adopted the shorter version as a de facto pen name
1865 Edmund Thormählen a Swedish sailor who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.
1865 Robert Kahn (composer) a German composer, pianist, and music teacher.
1866 Carlos Schwabe a German Symbolist painter and printmaker.
1870 Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov a Russian criminologist, journalist, and progressive statesman during the last years of the Russian Empire. He was the father of Russian-American author Vladimir Nabokov
1870 Emil Orlík a painter, etcher and lithographer. He was born in Prague, which was at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and lived and worked in Prague, Austria and Germany