Died on July 21

987 Geoffrey I Count of Anjou count of Anjou from 960 to 987.
1105 Frederick I Duke of Swabia Duke of Swabia from 1079 to his death, the first ruler from the House of Hohenstaufen.
1403 Henry Percy (Hotspur) a late medieval English nobleman. He was known as one of the most valiant knights of his day, and was a significant captain during the Anglo-Scottish wars. He later led successive rebellions against Henry IV of England, and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his career
1425 Manuel II Palaiologos Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. Shortly before his death he was tonsured a monk and received the name Matthew. He is commemorated on July 21
1517 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha an Ottoman general and statesman, known in his youth as Stjepan Hercegović.
1552 Antonio de Mendoza the first viceroy of New Spain, serving from April 17, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the second viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1551, to July 21, 1552.
1571 Martim Afonso de Sousa a Portuguese fidalgo, explorer and colonial administrator.
1637 Daniel Sennert a renowned German physician and a prolific academic writer, especially in the field of alchemy or chemistry. He held the position of professor of medicine at the University of Wittenberg for many years
1641 Thomas Mun an English writer on economics who has been called the last of the early mercantilists. He was among the first to recognize the exportation of service, or invisible items, as valuable trade, and made early statements strongly in support of capitalism. He had a set of "means to enrich a kingdom" which supported foreign trade by means of exporting more than importing. In other words if you spend more than you make then your wealth will decrease. In order to increase your exports and decrease your imports he said that you must: 1. use all available resources, 2. Don't follow trends and if you do follow trends then only follow domestic ones, 3. export through your own means, and 4. if it is too expensive to buy locally then people will buy somewhere else
1663 Hendrickje Stoffels the longtime lover of Rembrandt. The couple were unable to marry because of the financial settlement linked to the will of Rembrandt's deceased wife Saskia, but they remained together until Hendrickje's death. In the later years of their relationship Hendrickje managed Rembrandt's business affairs together with the painter's son Titus
1683 William Russell Lord Russell an English politician. He was a leading member of the Country Party, forerunners of the Whigs, who laid the groundwork opposition in the House of Commons of England to the concept of a reign of an openly Catholic King during the reign of King Charles II but ultimately resulted in his execution for treason, almost two years before King Charles died and James acceded to the throne
1688 James Butler 1st Duke of Ormonde an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier, known as Earl of Ormond from 1634 to 1642 and Marquess of Ormonde from 1642 to 1661. Following the failure of the senior line of the Butler family, he was the second of the Kilcash branch to inherit the earldom. His friend, the 1st Earl of Strafford, caused him to be appointed the commander of the Cavalier forces in Ireland. From 1641 to 1647, he led the fighting against the Irish Catholic Confederation. From 1649 to 1650 he was the leading commander of the Royalist forces in the fight against the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. In the 1650s he lived in exile in Europe with King Charles II of England. Upon the restoration of Charles to the throne in 1660, Ormonde became a major figure in English and Irish politics, holding many high government offices
1761 Archibald Douglas 1st Duke of Douglas a Scottish nobleman.
1761 Louis Galloche a French painter. A student of Louis de Boullogne, his own students included François Lemoyne, Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher
1771 Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi one of the leading German political economists in the 18th century.
1775 Szymon Czechowicz a prominent Polish painter of the Baroque, considered one of the most accomplished painters of 18th century sacral painting in Poland. He specialized in sublime effigies of painted figures. His establishment of a school of painting gives him a great influence on Polish art
1782 Karl Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
1792 Davit Guramishvili a Georgian poet who wrote the finest pieces of pre-Romantic Georgian literature. His poetic talents thrived far from his motherland, being forced by personal misfortunes and turmoil in Georgia to spend several years in the Russian military service until his retirement to his small Ukrainian estate at Myrhorod where he made eighty-seven years of his tragic and turbulent life into one cycle of autobiographical poetry, the Davitiani, which he sent to Georgia through a Georgian embassy returning from the Russian empire in 1787
1793 Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux a French naval officer, explorer and colonial governor. He is perhaps best known for his exploration of the Australian coast in 1792, while searching for the La Pérouse expedition. Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux is commonly referred to simply as Bruni d'Entrecasteaux or Bruny d'Entrecasteaux, which is a compound surname
1796 Robert Burns a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a light Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He also wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest
1796 Philip Carteret a British naval officer and explorer who participated in two of the Royal Navy's circumnavigation expeditions in 1764-66 and 1766-69.
1798 François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix Count of Clerfayt a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years' War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey. During the French Revolutionary Wars he saw extensive fighting and rose to the rank of Field Marshal
1817 António de Araújo e Azevedo 1st Count of Barca a Portuguese statesman, author and amateur botanist.
1824 Buddha Loetla Nabhalai the second monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1809 to 1824. In 1809, Itsarasunthon succeeded his father Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai the King of Siam. His reign was largely peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai was patron to a number of poets in his court and the King himself was a renowned poet and artist. The most notable poet in his employ was the illustrious Sunthorn Phu, the author of Phra Aphai Mani
1827 Archibald Constable a Scottish publisher, bookseller and stationer.
1828 Charles Manners-Sutton a priest in the Church of England who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1805 to 1828.
1832 François Joseph Bouvet a French admiral.
1838 Johann Nepomuk Maelzel a German inventor, engineer, and showman, best known for manufacturing a metronome and several music automatons, and displaying a fraudulent chess machine.
1840 Moses Waddel an American educator and minister in antebellum Georgia and South Carolina. Famous as a teacher during his life, Moses Waddel was author of the bestselling book Memoirs of the Life of Miss Caroline Elizabeth Smelt
1855 Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom a Swedish romantic poet, and a member of the Swedish Academy.
1856 Emil Aarestrup a Danish poet.
1863 Waller T. Patton a professor, attorney, and an officer of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
1868 William Bland a transported convict, medical practitioner and surgeon, politician, farmer and inventor in colonial New South Wales, Australia.
1873 Auguste Couder a French painter and student of Jean-Baptiste Regnault and Jacques-Louis David. He joined the Académie des beaux-arts in 1839 and was an officer of the Légion d'honneur. He married Cornélie Stouf, daughter of the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Stouf
1875 George Templeton Strong an American lawyer and diarist. His 2,250-page diary, discovered in the 1930s, provides a striking personal account of life in the 19th century, especially during the events of the American Civil War. The historian Paula Baker described him as "perhaps the northern equivalent of South Carolina's Mary Chesnut: quotable, opinionated, and a careful follower of events."
1876 Thomas Hayward (cricketer) a Cambridgeshire and All-England Eleven cricketer who was generally reckoned to be one of the outstanding batsmen of the 1850s and 1860s. In the early 1860s, he and Robert Carpenter, his Cambridgeshire colleague, were rated as the two finest batsmen in England. Richard Daft was among those ranking them as equal first, though George Parr reckoned Carpenter the better of the two
1878 Sam Bass (outlaw) a 19th-century American Old West train robber and outlaw.
1880 Hiram Walden a United States Representative from New York.
1886 Karl von Piloty a German painter.
1888 Victoria Benedictsson a Swedish author. She was born as Victoria Maria Bruzelius in Domme, a village in the province of Skåne. She wrote under the pen name Ernst Ahlgren
1888 Charles Duclerc a French journalist and politician of the Third Republic. He was a member of the editorial board of the National newspaper. Duclerc served as Minister of Finance from May through June in the Provisional government of France. Later served as prime minister from 1882 to 1883 in the third Republic
1889 Nelson Dewey a politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin; he was the first Governor of Wisconsin, serving from 1848 until 1852.
1891 Franco Faccio an Italian composer and conductor. Born in Verona, he studied music at the Milan Conservatory from 1855 where he was a pupil of Stefano Ronchetti-Monteviti and, as scholar William Ashbrook notes, "where he struck up a lifelong friendship with Arrigo Boito, two years his junior" and with whom he was to collaborate in many ways
1892 Léon Cladel a French novelist.
1892 Henry Gardner the 23rd Governor of Massachusetts, serving from 1855 to 1858. Gardner, a Know Nothing, and was elected governor as part of the sweeping victory of Know Nothing candidates in the Massachusetts elections of 1854
1899 Robert G. Ingersoll a lawyer, a Civil War veteran, political leader, and orator of United States during the Golden Age of Freethought, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism. He was nicknamed "The Great Agnostic"
1900 Alberic Crescitelli an Italian Catholic priest and missionary to China. Born in Italy on 30 June 1863, Father Alberico Crescitelli entered the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions in 1880 and was ordained a priest on 4 June 1887. The following year he went to China and began work in southern Shaanxi
1901 Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers a French biologist, anatomist and zoologist born in Montpezat in the department of Lot-et-Garonne. He was a leading authority in regards to mollusks
1903 Adam Stanisław Sapieha a Polish nobleman, landlord, politician.
1903 Henri Alexis Brialmont a Dutch-born Belgian military engineer. He was one of the leading fortifications engineers in the 19th century