Born on July 22

1136 William FitzEmpress the youngest of the three sons of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England.
1210 Joan of England Queen of Scotland Queen consort of Scotland from 1221 until her death. She was the third child of John, King of England and Isabella of Angoulême
1298 John Stewart of Bonkyll a son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland. He was a military commander during the First Scottish War of Independence and during the Battle of Falkirk, he commanded the Scottish archers, and was killed during the battle. Stewart is interred in the churchyard of the Falkirk Old Parish Church
1478 Philip I of Castile the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, at age 3 Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands from his mother, Mary, and at 27 briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna, who was also heiress-presumptive to the Crown of Aragon. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain. He never inherited his father's territories, nor became Holy Roman Emperor, because he predeceased his father, but his son Emperor Charles V eventually united the Habsburg, Burgundian, Castilian, and Aragonese inheritances
1531 Leonhard Thurneysser a scholar and miracle doctor at the court of Elector John George of Brandenburg.
1535 Catherine Stenbock Queen of Sweden between 1552 and 1560 as the third and last wife of King Gustav She was the daughter of Gustaf Olofsson Stenbock and Brita Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, who was the sister of the King's previous consort, Margareta Leijonhufvud. She was the sister of Ebba Stenbock
1559 Lawrence of Brindisi Saint Lawrence of Brindisi, O.F.M. Cap., , born Giulio Cesare Russo, was a Catholic priest and a member of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
1621 Anthony Ashley Cooper 1st Earl of Shaftesbury also remembered as the patron of John Locke.
1630 Madame de Brinvilliers a French aristocrat accused of three murders. She was convicted on the strength of letters written by her dead lover and a confession obtained by torture, so her guilt remains uncertain
1638 Theodor Kerckring a Dutch anatomist and chemical physician.
1647 Margaret Mary Alacoque V.H.M. was a French Roman Catholic nun and mystic, who promoted devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus in its modern form
1651 Ferdinand Tobias Richter an Austrian Baroque composer and organist.
1671 Louis Rudolph Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1731 until his death.
1689 Szymon Czechowicz a prominent Polish painter of the Baroque, considered one of the most accomplished painters of 18th century sacral painting in Poland. He specialized in sublime effigies of painted figures. His establishment of a school of painting gives him a great influence on Polish art
1702 Alessandro Besozzi an Italian composer and virtuoso oboist. He was a member of the ducal Guardia Irlandese from 1714, a hautboy band created by Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma in 1702, where he worked with his father Cristoforo Besozzi and his brothers Giuseppe and Paolo Girolamo Besozzi. After leaving the company on 20 April 1731, he worked in Turin with his brother Paolo Girolamo at the court of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia
1711 Georg Wilhelm Richmann a German physicist who lived in Russia.
1713 Jacques-Germain Soufflot a French architect in the international circle that introduced neoclassicism. His most famous work is the Panthéon in Paris, built from 1755 onwards, originally as a church dedicated to Saint Genevieve
1726 Hugh Drysdale a British governor of colonial Virginia. More officially, his title was Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. He served as governor from September 1722, until his death in July 1726
1733 Mikhail Shcherbatov a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. His view of human nature and social progress is kindred to Swift's pessimism. He was known as a statesman, historian, writer and philosopher, and was one of the most visible representatives of the nascent Russian conservatism during the second half of the 18th century
1755 Gaspard de Prony a French mathematician and engineer, who worked on hydraulics. He was born at Chamelet, Beaujolais, France and died in Asnières-sur-Seine, France
1756 Jeanne of Valois-Saint-Rémy dubious. She herself was an impoverished descendant of the Valois royal family through an illegitimate son of King Henry She is known for her prominent role in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace, one of many scandals that led to the French Revolution and destroyed the monarchy of France
1770 Jean Maximilien Lamarque a French commander during the Napoleonic Wars who later became a member of French Parliament. Lamarque served with distinction in many of Napoleon's campaigns. He was particularly noted for his capture of Capri from the British, and for his defeat of Royalist forces in the Vendée in 1815. The latter campaign received great praise from Napoleon, who said Lamarque had "performed wonders, and even surpassed my hopes"
1772 Étienne Laurent Joseph Hippolyte Boyer de Fonscolombe a French entomologist who specialised in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera and pest insects.
1784 Friedrich Bessel a German astronomer, mathematician. He was the first astronomer to determine the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax
1792 Grand Duchess Olga Pavlovna of Russia a Grand Duchess of Russia as the second youngest daughter and seventh child of Emperor Paul I of Russia and his empress consort, Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.
1795 Gabriel Lamé a French mathematician who contributed to the theory of partial differential equations by the use of curvilinear coordinates, and the mathematical theory of elasticity.
1802 Alexander Kasimovich Kazembek a famous orientalist, historian and philologist of Azerbaijani origin. He was the grandfather of the Mladorossi founder Alexander Kazembek
1803 Eugène Isabey a French painter, draftsman, and printmaker.
1806 Johann Kaspar Zeuss a German historian and founder of Celtic philology.
1807 Karolina Pavlova a 19th-century Russian poet and novelist who stood out from other writers on account of her unique appreciation of exceptional rhymes and imagery.
1808 James Hope Grant the fifth and youngest son of Francis Grant of Kilgraston, Perthshire, and brother of Sir Francis Grant, President of the Royal Academy. He was uncle to Mary Grant the sculptress
1809 Jonathan McCully thus considered one of the Fathers of Canadian Confederation. He did much to promote union through newspaper editorials. For his efforts, he received a Senate appointment. He later became a judge of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court
1815 Ernest Goüin a French civil engineer and industrialist.
1819 Ernest Cosson a French botanist born in Paris.
1820 Oliver Mowat the third Premier of Ontario, the eighth Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and one of the Fathers of Confederation.
1823 Godfried Guffens a Belgian painter. He is best known for his monumental religious and historical murals
1823 Ludwig Bamberger a German economist, politician and writer.
1830 Richard Copley Christie an English lawyer, University teacher, philanthropist and bibliophile.
1831 Emperor Kōmei the 121st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1832 Colin Archer a Scottish naval architect and shipbuilder from Larvik, Norway. His parents had immigrated to Norway from Scotland in 1825
1839 Jakob Hurt a notable Estonian folklorist, theologist, and linguist. With respect to the latter, he is perhaps best known for his dissertation on "pure" -ne stem nouns. He is also featured on the 10 krooni note
1844 William Archibald Spooner given to the linguistic phenomenon of spoonerism.
1848 Adolphus Frederick V Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1904 to 1914.
1849 Emma Lazarus an American poet born in New York City.
1853 Alfred Messel one of the most well-known German architects at the turning point to the 20th century, creating a new style for buildings which bridged the transition from historicism to modernism. Messel was able to combine the structure, decoration, and function of his buildings, which ranged from department stores, museums, office buildings, mansions, and social housing to soup kitchens, into a coherent, harmonious whole. As an urban architect striving for excellence he was in many respects ahead of his time. His most well known works, the Wertheim department stores and the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, reflect a new concept of self-confident metropolitan architecture. His architectural drawings and construction plans are preserved at the Architecture Museum of the Technical University of Berlin
1856 Asai Chū a Japanese painter, noted for his pioneering work in developing the yōga art movement in late 19th century and early twentieth-century Japanese painting.
1857 Frank Hamilton Cushing an American anthropologist and ethnologist. His pioneering studies of the Zuni Indians of New Mexico by entering into their culture helped establish participant observation as a common anthropological research strategy
1860 Frederick Rolfe an English writer, artist, photographer and eccentric.
1862 Thomas Ball Barratt a British-born Norwegian pastor and founder of the Pentecostal movement in Norway.
1862 Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon 5th Baronet a prominent Scottish landowner and sportsman, best known for the controversy surrounding his escape from the sinking of the RMS Titanic.