Died on July 22

1253 Albert IV Count of Tyrol the last count of Tyrol from the House of the Tyrol, He was also Vogt of Trent and from 1210 also Vogt of Bolzano.
1274 Henry I of Navarre the Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre from 1270. After a brief reign, characterised, it is said, by dignity and talent, he died in July 1274, suffocated, according to the generally received accounts, by his own fat
1322 Louis I Count of Nevers suo jure Count of Nevers and jure uxoris Count of Rethel.
1329 Cangrande I della Scala an Italian nobleman, the most celebrated of the della Scala family which ruled Verona from 1277 until 1387. Now perhaps best known as the leading patron of the poet Dante Alighieri, Cangrande was in his own day chiefly acclaimed as a successful warrior and autocrat. Between becoming sole ruler of Verona in 1311 and his death in 1329 he took control of several neighbouring cities, notably Vicenza, Padua and Treviso, and came to be regarded as the leader of the Ghibelline faction in northern Italy
1362 Louis Count of Gravina Count of Gravina and Morrone. He was the son of John of Gravina and Agnes of Périgord
1387 Frans Ackerman one of the most famous Flemish statesmen of the 14th century.
1403 Edmund Stafford 5th Earl of Stafford the son of Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford and Philippa de Beauchamp.
1444 Oddantonio da Montefeltro the first duke of Urbino in Italy.
1461 Charles VII of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death, although his legitimacy was initially contested by Henry VI of England.
1497 Francesco Botticini an Italian Early Renaissance painter who studied under Cosimo Rosselli and Andrea del Verrocchio. He was born in Florence in 1446 and is mostly known for his painting "Assumption of the Virgin" in the National Gallery, London showing the angelic hierarchy
1525 Richard Wingfield an influential courtier and diplomat in the early years of the Tudor dynasty of England.
1540 John Zápolya King of Hungary from 1526 to 1540. His rule was disputed by Archduke Ferdinand I, who also claimed the title King of Hungary. He was Voivode of Transylvania before his coronation
1563 Francisco de Villagra a Spanish conquistador, and three times governor of Chile.
1575 Francesco Maurolico a mathematician and astronomer from Sicily. Born to a Greek family and immersed in the study of classical Greek text, throughout his lifetime he made contributions to the fields of geometry, optics, conics, mechanics, music, and astronomy. He edited the works of classical authors including Archimedes, Apollonius, Autolycus, Theodosius and Serenus. He also composed his own unique treatises on mathematics and mathematical science
1610 Charles I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Güstrow part of the country.
1610 Pedro Henriquez de Acevedo Count of Fuentes a Spanish general and statesman.
1619 Lawrence of Brindisi Saint Lawrence of Brindisi, O.F.M. Cap., , born Giulio Cesare Russo, was a Catholic priest and a member of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
1624 García de Silva Figueroa a Spanish diplomat, and the first Western traveller to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid in Persia as the location of Persepolis, the ancient capital of the Achaemenid Empire and one of the great cities of antiquity.
1633 Trijntje Keever alleged to be the tallest female person in recorded history, standing 9 Amsterdam feet or 2.54 metres tall at the time of her death at age seventeen.
1645 Gaspar de Guzmán Count-Duke of Olivares a Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister. As prime minister from 1621 to 1643, he over-exerted Spain in foreign affairs and unsuccessfully attempted domestic reform. His policies of committing Spain to recapture Holland led to his major involvement in the Thirty Years' War and his attempts to centralise power and increase wartime taxation led to revolts in Catalonia and in Portugal, which brought about his downfall
1652 Jacques Specx a Dutch merchant, who founded the trade on Japan and Korea in 1609. Jacques Specx received the support of William Adams to obtain extensive trading rights from the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu on August 24, 1609, which allowed him to establish a trading factory in Hirado on September 20, 1609. He was the interim governor in Batavia between 1629 - 1632. There his daughter Saartje Specx was involved in a scandal. Back home in Holland Specx became an art-collector
1676 Pope Clement X Pope from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676.
1680 Richard Cameron (Covenanter) a leader of the militant Presbyterians, known as Covenanters, who resisted attempts by the Stuart monarchs to control the affairs of the Church of Scotland, acting through bishops. While attempting to revive the flagging fortunes of the Covenanting cause in 1680, he was tracked down by the authorities and killed in a clash of arms at Airds Moss in Ayrshire. His followers took his name as the Cameronians and ultimately formed the nucleus of the later Scottish regiment of the same name, the Cameronians. The regiment was disbanded in 1968
1684 Josefa de Óbidos a Spanish-born, Portuguese painter from the seventeenth century. Her birth name was Josefa de Ayala Figueira, but she signed her work as, "Josefa em Óbidos" or, "Josefa de Ayalla". She is one of the relatively few female European painters known to have been active in the Baroque era. All of her work was executed in Portugal, her father's native country, where she lived from the age of four
1700 Alderano Cybo an Italian Catholic Cardinal.
1746 Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, son of Louis XV of France. She died aged 20, while giving birth to a daughter who died in 1748
1765 Carl Alexander Clerck a Swedish entomologist and arachnologist.
1794 Louis-Charles de Flers La Motte-Ango, vicomte de Flers joined the French Royal army and rose in rank to become a general officer in the French Revolutionary Wars. After serving in the Austrian Netherlands, he was appointed to command the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees. His army suffered several defeats in May and June 1793, but he rallied his troops to win a defensive victory at the Battle of Perpignan in July. The all-powerful Representatives-on-mission arrested him in August 1793 for a minor setback and sent him to Paris under arrest. The Committee of Public Safety executed him by guillotine on trumped up charges in the last days of the Reign of Terror. De Flers is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe
1794 Jean-Benjamin de La Borde a French composer, writer on music and fermier générale. Born into an aristocratic family, he studied violin under Antoine Dauvergne and composition under Jean-Philippe Rameau. From 1762 to 1774, he served at the court of Louis XV as premier valet de la chambre, losing his post on the death of the king. He wrote many operas, mostly comic, and a four-volume collection of songs for solo voice, Choix de chansons mises en musique illustrated by Jean-Michel Moreau. Many of the songs from the collection were later published individually through the efforts of the English folksong collector Lucy Etheldred Broadwood. His Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne was published in 1780. La Borde was guillotined during the French Revolution in 1794
1802 Marie François Xavier Bichat best remembered as the father of modern histology and descriptive anatomy. Despite working without a microscope, he was the first to introduce the notion of tissues as distinct entities, and maintained that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs or the entire body, causing a revolution in anatomical pathology
1806 Maximilian Anton Karl Count Baillet de Latour a general in Austrian service during the French Revolutionary Wars.
1809 Jean Senebier a Swiss pastor who wrote many works on vegetable physiology.
1812 Louis-Alexandre de Launay comte d'Antraigues a French pamphleteer, diplomat, spy and political adventurer during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
1813 George Shaw an English botanist and zoologist.
1819 Sebald Justinus Brugmans a Dutch botanist and physician. He was the son of naturalist Anton Brugmans
1823 William Bartram an American naturalist. The son of Ann and John Bartram, William Bartram and his twin sister Elizabeth were born in Kingsessing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a boy, he accompanied his father on many of his travels to the Catskill Mountains, the New Jersey Pine Barrens, New England, and Florida. From his mid-teens, Bartram was noted for the quality of his botanic and ornithological drawings. He also had an increasing role in the maintenance of his father's botanic garden, and added many rare species to it
1824 Thomas Macnamara Russell an admiral in the Royal Navy. Russell's naval career spanned the American Revolutionary War, French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic War
1826 Giuseppe Piazzi an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer. He was born in Ponte in Valtellina, and died in Naples. He established an observatory at Palermo, now the Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo – Giuseppe Vaiana. Perhaps his most famous discovery was the first asteroid, Ceres
1827 Ludwig Heinrich von Jakob a German philosopher, political scientist and economist. During the French occupation of Germany, he worked as a consultant and professor in Russia
1832 Napoleon II the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
1833 Joseph Forlenze an Italian ophthalmologist and surgeon, considered one of the most important ophthalmologists between the 18th and the 19th century. He was mostly known in France, during the Napoleonic Empire, for his cataract surgery
1845 Count Heinrich von Bellegarde born in Saxony, later joined the Austrian army, became a general officer, and fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He became a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman
1849 Casimir von Blumenthal an Austrian violinist, composer and conductor who worked in Switzerland.
1850 Vicente López y Portaña a Spanish painter, considered the best portrait painter of his time.
1852 Franciszek Ksawery Lampi a Polish Romantic painter born in Austria of ethnic Italian background. He was associated with the aristocratic circle of the late Stanisław II Augustus, the last Polish king before the foreign partitions of Poland. Lampi settled in Warsaw around 1815 at the age of 33, and established himself as the leading landscape and portrait artist in Congress Poland soon after Napoleon's defeat in Russia
1853 Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg a Danish painter. He was born in Blåkrog in the Duchy of Schleswig , to Henrik Vilhelm Eckersberg, painter and carpenter, and Ingeborg Nielsdatter. He went on to lay the foundation for the period of art known as the Golden Age of Danish Painting, and is referred to as the Father of Danish painting
1859 Louis de Potter a Belgian journalist who became a famous politician and literature author. Out of the more than 100 books and pamphlets, one of the most notable works was his famous Letter to my fellow citizens in which he promoted more democracy, universal electoral rights and the Belgian unity of strengths between liberals and Catholics. As one of the heroes of the Belgian revolution, he proclaimed the independence of Belgium from the Netherlands , and inaugurated the first Belgian parliamentary assembly , on behalf of the Belgian provisional government
1861 Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. a career United States Army officer and a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was mortally wounded at the First Battle of Bull Run, one of the first general officers to be killed in the war. During that battle, he was responsible for inspiring the famous nickname for Brig. Gen. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
1864 Mikhail Dostoyevsky a Russian short story writer, publisher, literary critic and the elder brother of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The two of them were only a year apart in age and spent their childhood together. Mikhail was regarded by his family as an underachiever, particularly after his younger brother's achievements outshone his own
1864 James B. McPherson a career United States Army officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was killed at the Battle of Atlanta, the second highest ranking Union officer killed during the war