Died on July 23

997 Nuh II amir of the Samanids. He was the son and successor of Mansur I
1227 Qiu Chuji a Daoist disciple of Wang Chongyang. He was the most famous among the Seven True Daoists of the North. He was the founder of the Dragon Gate sect of Taoism attracting the largest following in the streams of traditions flowing from the sects of the disciples
1298 Thoros III King of Armenia king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1293 to 1298. He was the son of Leo II of Armenia and Kyranna de Lampron, and was part of the Hethumid dynasty. In 1293 his brother Hethum II abdicated in his favour; however, Thoros recalled Hethum to the throne in 1295. The two brought their sister Rita to Constantinople to marry Michael IX Palaiologos in 1296, but were imprisoned upon their return in Bardzrberd by their brother Sempad, who had usurped the throne in their absence. Thoros was murdered, strangled to death on July 23, 1298 in Bardzrberd by Oshin, Marshal of Armenia, on Sempad's orders
1373 Bridget of Sweden a mystic and saint, and founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years. She was also the mother of Catherine of Vadstena
1393 Konrad von Wallenrode the 24th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1391 to 1393. Modern sources are friendly towards Konrad, although they claim he was hot-blooded, proud, and had tendencies to be cruel
1403 Thomas Percy 1st Earl of Worcester an English medieval nobleman best known for leading the rebellion with his nephew Henry Percy, known as 'Harry Hotspur', and his elder brother, Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.
1429 Margaret of Prades the queen consort of Aragon as a wife of the King Martin of Aragon.
1475 Shin Suk-ju a Korean politician and soldier during the Joseon Dynasty. He served as Prime Minister from 1461 to 1464 and from 1471 to 1475
1536 Henry FitzRoy 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset the son of King Henry VIII of England and his mistress Elizabeth Blount, and the only illegitimate offspring whom Henry acknowledged. He was the younger half-brother of Mary I, future Queen of England , as well as the older half-brother of the future Elizabeth I and Edward Through his mother he was the elder brother of Elizabeth Tailboys, 4th Baroness Tailboys of Kyme, George Tailboys, 2nd Baron Tailboys of Kyme and Robert Tailboys, 3rd Baron Tailboys of Kyme
1562 Götz von Berlichingen a German Imperial Knight and mercenary. He was born around 1480 into the noble family of Berlichingen in modern-day Württemberg. Götz bought Hornberg castle in 1517, and lived there until his death in 1562
1577 Scipione Rebiba an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
1584 John Day (printer) an English Protestant printer. He specialised in printing and distributing Protestant literature and pamphlets, and produced many small-format religious books, such as ABCs, sermons, and translations of psalms. He found fame, however, as the publisher of John Foxe's Actes and Monuments, also known as the Book of Martyrs, the largest and most technologically accomplished book printed in sixteenth-century England
1595 Thoinot Arbeau the anagrammatic pen name of French cleric Jehan Tabourot. Tabourot is most famous for his Orchésographie, a study of late sixteenth-century French Renaissance social dance. He was born in Dijon and died in Langres
1689 Frederick Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg by birth Count Palatine of Neuburg and Imperial General.
1692 Gilles Ménage a French scholar.
1756 Charles-Armand de Gontaut duc de Biron a French military leader who served with distinction under Louis XIV and Louis XV, and was made a Marshal of France by the latter.
1757 Domenico Scarlatti an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families. He is classified primarily as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style and he was one of the few Baroque composers to transition into the classical period. Like his renowned father Alessandro Scarlatti, he composed in a variety of musical forms, although today he is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas
1764 Gilbert Tennent a religious leader, born in County Armagh, Ireland. Gilbert was one of the leaders of the Great Awakening of religious feeling in Colonial America, along with Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. His most famous sermon, "On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry" compared anti-revivalistic ministers to the Pharisees described in the gospels
1773 George Edwards (naturalist) an English naturalist and ornithologist, known as the "father of British ornithology".
1777 Yakov Shakhovskoy a Russian statesman.
1781 John Joachim Zubly a Swiss-born American pastor, planter, and statesman during the American Revolution. Although a delegate for Georgia to the Continental Congress in 1775, he resisted independence from Great Britain and became a Loyalist
1793 Roger Sherman an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a Founding Father of the United States. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic. He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."
1794 Alexandre de Beauharnais a French political figure and general during the French Revolution. He was the first husband of Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, who later married Napoleon Bonaparte and became Empress of the First Empire
1800 John Rutledge an American statesman, lawyer, and judge. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress and the Continental Congress, President and then Governor of South Carolina during the American Revolution, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and second Chief Justice. He was the elder brother of Edward Rutledge, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Like nearly all important men in South Carolina at the time, he was a slaveowner
1802 María Cayetana de Silva 13th Duchess of Alba a Spanish aristocrat and a popular subject of the painter Francisco de Goya y Lucientes.
1808 Jacob Sievers a Russian statesman from the Sievers family.
1820 Barlaam (Shyshatsky) defroched Archbishop of Mogilev and Vitebsk of the Russian Orthodox Church.
1822 Hieronymus Karl Graf von Colloredo-Mansfeld an Austrian corps commander during the Napoleonic Wars. He played an important part in the German campaign of 1813, contributing decisively to the coalition victory at the battle of Kulm
1827 Jean-Barthélemot Sorbier a French general of the Napoleonic Wars.
1829 Wojciech Bogusławski a Polish actor, theater director and playwright of the Polish Enlightenment. He was the director of the National Theatre, Warsaw, , during three distinct periods, as well as establishing a Polish opera. He is considered the "Father of Polish theatre."
1833 Anselmo de la Cruz a Chilean political figure. He served several times as minister, and participated actively in the war of independence in that country
1840 Carl Blechen a German landscape painter and a Professor at the Academy of Arts, Berlin. His distinctive style was characteristic of the Romantic ideals of natural beauty
1843 Antonín Mánes a Czech painter and draftsman.
1845 William Sublette a fur trapper, pioneer and mountain man, who, with his brothers after 1823, became an agent of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company , exploiting the riches of the Oregon Country, which helped settle the best routes later improved into the Oregon Trail.
1846 Christian Heinrich Rinck a German composer and organist of the late classical and early romantic eras.
1853 Andries Pretorius a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the South African Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa. The large city of Pretoria in South Africa is named after him
1856 Theodor von Schön a Prussian statesman who assisted in the liberal reforms in Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars.
1859 Marceline Desbordes-Valmore a French poet and novelist.
1862 José María Bocanegra a Mexican lawyer and politician who was briefly interim president of Mexico in 1829.
1865 Jean-Louis Tulou a French flute teacher, player and instrument maker.
1875 Isaac Singer an American inventor, actor, and entrepreneur. He made important improvements in the design of the sewing machine and was the founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Many had patented sewing machines before Singer, but his success was based on the practicality of his machine, the ease with which it could be adapted to home use, and its availability on an installment payment basis. Singer fathered at least 24 children with various wives and mistresses
1878 Minnie Warren a proportionate dwarf and an entertainer associated with T. Barnum. Her sister Lavinia Warren was married to General Tom Thumb. They were very well known in 1860s America and their meeting with Abraham Lincoln was covered in the press
1878 Carl von Rokitansky a Bohemian physician, pathologist, humanist philosopher and liberal politician.
1882 George Perkins Marsh considered by some to be America's first environmentalist and the precursor to the sustainability concept, although "conservationist" would be more accurate. The Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park in Vermont takes its name, in part, from Marsh
1885 Ulysses S. Grant the 18th President of the United States. In 1865, as commanding general, Grant led the Union Armies to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. He then implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. Twice elected president, Grant led the Radical Republicans in their effort to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery, protect African-American citizenship, and defeat the Ku Klux Klan
1888 Juana Navarro Alsbury one of the few Texian survivors of the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution in 1836. As Mexican forces entered her hometown, San Antonio de Bexar, on February 23, Alsbury's cousin by marriage, James Bowie, brought her with him to the Alamo Mission so that he could protect her. Bowie, the co-commander of the Texian forces, collapsed from illness on the second day of the siege; Alsbury nursed him throughout the remainder of the siege. On March 4, Texian co-commander William Barret Travis sent her as an emissary to Mexican commander Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to negotiate an honorable surrender for the Texian forces. She made no headway, and her visit likely increased Santa Anna's impatience to end the siege in a spectacular fashion. Santa Anna launched an early-morning assault on the Alamo on March 6
1888 Johannes Heinrich August Ebrard a German theologian.
1894 Heinrich Brunn a German archaeologist. He was known for taking a scientific approach in his investigations of classical Greek and Roman art
1896 Emeryk Hutten-Czapski a Polish Count, scholar, ardent historical collector and numismatist.
1900 Ferdinand Hamer a Catholic missionary to China and bishop who was killed in the Boxer rebellion in China.