July 23 events in history

1319 A Knights Hospitaller fleet scores a crushing victory over an Aydinid fleet off Chios
1632 Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe, France
1677 Scanian War: Denmark–Norway captures the harbor town of Marstrand from Sweden
1793 Kingdom of Prussia re-conquers Mainz from France
1821 While the Mora Rebellion continues, Greeks capture Monemvasia Castle. Turkish troops and citizens are transferred to Minor Asia coasts
1829 In the United States, William Austin Burt patents the typographer, a precursor to the typewriter
1833 Cornerstones are laid for the construction of the Kirtland Temple in Kirtland, Ohio
1840 The Province of Canada is created by the Act of Union
1862 American Civil War: Henry Halleck takes command of the Union Army
1874 Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos is appointed the Archbishop of the Portuguese colonial enclave of Goa, India
1881 The Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina is signed in Buenos Aires
1903 The Ford Motor Company sells its first car
1908 The Second Constitution accepted by the Ottomans
1914 Austria-Hungary issues a series of demands in an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia demanding Serbia to allow the Austrians to determine who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Serbia accepts all but one of those demands and Austria declares war on July 28
1926 Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film
1927 The first station of the Indian Broadcasting Company goes on the air in Bombay
1929 The Fascist government in Italy bans the use of foreign words
1936 In Catalonia, Spain, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia is founded through the merger of Socialist and Communist parties
1940 The United States' Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles issues a declaration on the U.S. non-recognition policy of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
1942 The Holocaust: The Treblinka extermination camp is opened
1942 Bulgarian poet and Communist leader Nikola Vaptsarov is executed by firing squad
1942 World War II: The German offensives Operation Edelweiss and Operation Braunschweig begin
1943 World War II: The British destroyers HMS Eclipse and HMS Laforey sink the Italian submarine Ascianghi in the Mediterranean after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland
1943 The Rayleigh bath chair murder occurred in Rayleigh, Essex, England
1945 The post-war legal processes against Philippe Pétain begin
1952 General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement (formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the real power behind the coup) in overthrowing King Farouk of Egypt
1952 The European Coal and Steel Community is established
1961 The Sandinista National Liberation Front is founded in Nicaragua
1962 Telstar relays the first publicly transmitted, live trans-Atlantic television program, featuring Walter Cronkite
1962 The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed
1967 12th Street Riot: In Detroit, Michigan, one of the worst riots in United States history begins on 12th Street in the predominantly African American inner city. It ultimately kills 43 people, injures 342 and burns about 1,400 buildings
1968 The only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft takes place when a Boeing 707 carrying ten crew and 38 passengers is taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The aircraft was en route from Rome, Italy, to Lod, Israel
1968 Glenville Shootout: In Cleveland, Ohio, a violent shootout between a Black Militant organization led by Ahmed Evans and the Cleveland Police Department occurs. During the shootout, a riot begins and lasts for five days
1970 Qaboos bin Said al Said becomes Sultan of Oman after overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur initiating massive reforms, modernization programs and end to a decade long civil war
1972 The United States launches Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite
1974 The Greek military junta collapses, and former Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis is invited to lead the new government, beginning Greece's metapolitefsi era
1982 The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1985-86
1983 13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers are killed after a deadly ambush by the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
1983 Gimli Glider: Air Canada Flight 143 runs out of fuel and makes a deadstick landing at Gimli, Manitoba
1984 Vanessa Williams becomes the first Miss America to resign when she surrenders her crown after nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine
1986 In London, England, Prince Andrew, Duke of York marries Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey
1988 General Ne Win, effective ruler of Burma since 1962, resigns after pro-democracy protests
1992 Abkhazia declares independence from Georgia
1992 A Vatican commission, led by Joseph Ratzinger, establishes that limiting certain rights of homosexual people and non-married couples is not equivalent to discrimination on grounds of race or gender
1993 Agdam was occupied by Armenian separatists
1995 Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later
1997 Digital Equipment Corporation files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel
1999 Mohammed VI becomes King of Morocco
2014 The opening ceremony for the 2014 Commonwealth Games is held in Glasgow, Scotland