Born on July 24

922 Emperor Suzaku the 61st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1190 Yelü Chucai a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty, who became a vigorous adviser and administrator of the early Mongol Empire in the Confucian tradition. He was the first of Genghis Khan's retainers to formulate policy during the Mongol conquests, and he also introduced many administrative reforms in North China during the reign of Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei
1198 Berthold of Hanover a German Cistercian and Bishop of Livonia, who met his death in a crusade against the pagan Livonians.
1468 Catherine of Saxony Archduchess of Austria the second wife of Sigismund, Archduke of Austria and Regent of Tyrol.
1529 Charles II Margrave of Baden-Durlach nicknamed Charles with the bag, governed the Margravate of Durlach from 1552 to 1577. On June 1, 1556, Charles issued a new Church Order, which made Lutheranism the official religion in Baden-Durlach
1561 Maria of the Palatinate-Simmern a German Princess and a Swedish Princess and Duchess of Södermanland by marriage, the first spouse of the future King Charles IX of Sweden. She died before he became King, and was therefore never Queen
1574 Thomas Platter the Younger a Swiss-born physician, traveller and diarist, the son of the humanist Thomas Platter the Elder.
1596 Luis de Velasco marqués de Salinas Spanish nobleman, son of the second viceroy of New Spain, and himself the eighth viceroy. He governed from January 27, 1590 to November 4, 1595, and again from July 2, 1607 to June 10, 1611. In between he was viceroy of Peru for eight years
1660 Charles Talbot 1st Duke of Shrewsbury an English statesman. Born to Roman Catholic parents, he remained in that faith until 1679 when—during the time of the Popish Plot and following the advice of the divine John Tillotson—he converted to the Church of England. Shrewsbury took his seat in the House of Lords in 1680 and three years later was appointed Gentleman-Extraordinary of the Bedchamber, suggesting he was in favour at the court of Charles II
1665 John George II Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach.
1689 Prince William Duke of Gloucester the son of Princess Anne, later Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1702, and her husband, Prince George, Duke of Cumberland. He was their only child to survive infancy. Styled Duke of Gloucester, he was viewed by contemporaries as a Protestant champion because his birth seemed to cement the Protestant succession established in the "Glorious Revolution" that had deposed his Catholic grandfather James II the previous year
1696 Benning Wentworth the colonial governor of New Hampshire from 1741 to 1766.
1720 Louisa Ulrika of Prussia Queen of Sweden between 1751 and 1771 as the spouse of King Adolf Frederick, and queen mother during the reign of King Gustav III.
1731 Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt a French chemist who synthesised the first organometalic compound.
1754 Jean Baptiste marquis de Traversay a French creole seaman who distinguished himself in the ranks of Royal French Navy during American Revolutionary War. In 1791, fleeing from hostilities of the French Revolution, Traversay joined Imperial Russian Navy, rising to commander-in-chief of Black Sea Fleet in 1802. In 1809 he was appointed Minister of the Navy, and held this position for 18 years. His name was frequently russified to Ivan Ivanovich de Traversay
1756 Douglas Hamilton 8th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish peer.
1759 Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia.
1761 Jakub Jasiński a Polish general, and poet of Enlightenment. He participated in the War in Defence of the Constitution in 1792, was an enemy of the Targowica Confederation and organized an action against its supporters in Wilno. He was killed in the Battle of Praga in 1794
1766 Franz Xaver Niemetschek a Czech philosopher, teacher and music critic. He wrote the first full-length biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart which has remained an important source of information about the composer
1775 Eugène François Vidocq a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. The former criminal became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Sûreté Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agency, Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology and of the French police department. He is also regarded as the first private detective
1777 Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano briefly the President of Peru from June to August 1827. His parents were José Antonio de Salazar y Breña and Francisca Baquíjano y Carrillo de Córdoba. José Baquíjano was Manuel Salazar's uncle
1782 John Fox Burgoyne a British Army officer. After taking part in Siege of Malta during the French Revolutionary Wars, he saw action under Sir John Moore and then under Sir Arthur Wellesley at the numerous battles of the Peninsular War. He served under General Edward Pakenham as chief engineer during the War of 1812. He went on to act as official advisor to Lord Raglan during the Crimean War advocating the Bay of Kalamita as the point of disembarkation for allied forces and recommending a Siege of Sevastopol from the south side rather than a coup de main, so consigning the allied forces to a winter in the field in 1854
1783 Simón Bolívar a Venezuelan military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas
1783 Frédéric de Lafresnaye a French ornithologist and collector.
1786 Joseph Nicollet a French geographer, astronomer, and mathematician known for mapping the Upper Mississippi River basin during the 1830s. Nicollet led three expeditions in the region between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, primarily in Minnesota, South Dakota, and North Dakota
1794 Heinz Christian Pander a Baltic German biologist and embryologist born in Riga.
1796 Georg Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
1796 John M. Clayton an American lawyer and politician from Delaware. He was a member of the Whig Party who served in the Delaware General Assembly, and as U.S. Senator from Delaware and U.S. Secretary of State
1798 John Adams Dix Secretary of the Treasury, Governor of New York and Union major general during the Civil War. He was notable for arresting the pro-Southern Maryland legislature, preventing that divided border state from seceding, and for arranging a system for prisoner exchange via the Dix-Hill cartel, concluded in partnership with Confederate Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill
1801 Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton a British baronet.
1802 Alexandre Dumas a French writer. His works have been translated into nearly 100 languages, and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne: Ten Years Later were originally published as serials. His novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films. Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, unfinished at his death, was completed by a scholar and published in 2005, becoming a bestseller. It was published in English in 2008 as The Last Cavalier
1803 Adolphe Adam a French composer and music critic. A prolific composer of operas and ballets, he is best known today for his ballets Giselle and Le corsaire , his operas Le postillon de Lonjumeau , Le toréador and Si j'étais roi and his Christmas carol Minuit, chrétiens! , later set to different English lyrics and widely sung as "O Holy Night". Adam was a noted teacher, who taught Delibes and other influential composers
1807 Ira Aldridge an American and later British stage actor who made his career largely on the London stage and in Europe, especially in Shakespearean roles. He is the only actor of African-American descent among the 33 actors of the English stage honored with bronze plaques at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-upon-Avon. He was especially popular in Prussia and Russia, where he received top honors from heads of state
1812 Christopher Edmund Broome a British mycologist.
1813 Edward Cardwell 1st Viscount Cardwell a prominent British politician in the Peelite and Liberal parties during the middle of the 19th century. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for War between 1868 and 1874 and the introduction of the Cardwell Reforms
1815 Arnaud-Michel d'Abbadie a French and Basque geographer, and along with his older brother Antoine-Thomson d'Abbadie, was notable for his travels in Ethiopia.
1816 Józef Michał Poniatowski a Polish szlachcic, a composer and an operatic tenor. He was the nephew of the Polish general Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski. He was created the 1st Conte di Monte Rotondo on November 20, 1847, and the first Principe di Monte Rotondo on November 19, 1850 by Grand Duke of Tuscany Lepold II
1817 Adolphe Grand Duke of Luxembourg the first monarch of Luxembourg from the House of Nassau-Weilburg.
1821 William Poole the leader of the New York City gang Bowery Boys, a bare-knuckle boxer, and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement.
1822 Adolf Overweg a German geologist, astronomer, and traveler from Hamburg. As a member of a mission to fix trade routes in Central Africa he became the first person of European origin to circumnavigate Lake Chad by boat
1827 Francisco Solano López president of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870. He was the eldest son of Juana Pabla Carrillo and the president Carlos Antonio López, who had left his son a prosperous nation
1830 Nikolaus Dumba an Austrian industrialist and liberal politician of Greek descent. He is considered to have been an important patron of the arts and music
1833 Lina Ramann a German writer and teacher known for her books on the Hungarian composer and pianist Franz Liszt. During 1874-94, she wrote his "official" though inaccurate three volume biography "Franz Liszt, the artist and man" which was published between 1880-94
1836 Jan Gotlib Bloch a Polish banker and railway financier who devoted his private life to the study of modern industrial warfare. Born Jewish and a convert to Calvinism, he spent considerable effort to opposing the prevalent Antisemitic polices of the Tsarist government, and was sympathetic to the fledgling Zionist Movement
1840 Abraham Goldfaden a Russian-born Jewish poet, playwright, stage director and actor in the languages Yiddish and Hebrew, author of some 40 plays. Goldfaden is considered the father of the Jewish modern theatre
1843 Eugene de Blaas an Italian painter in the school known as Academic Classicism.
1843 William de Wiveleslie Abney an English astronomer, chemist, and photographer.
1848 Francisco Pradilla Ortiz a prolific Spanish painter famous for creating historical scenes.
1849 J. A. D. Jensen a Danish naval officer and Arctic explorer. He assisted the geological exploration along the Greenland west coast. He is particularly renowned for his explorations of the inland ice sheet. He led an expedition that discovered nunataks now named after him: A. Jensens Nunatakker. The geologist of the expedtition, Kornerup, collected no less than 27 species of Angiosperms on the nunataks
1851 Friedrich Schottky a German mathematician who worked on elliptic, abelian, and theta functions and introduced Schottky groups and Schottky's theorem. He was born in Breslau, Germany and died in Berlin