Born on July 25

885 Ragenold of Neustria the Count of Herbauges from 852 and Count of Maine and Margrave of Neustria from 878. His family is unidentified, but he may have been a son of Reginald of Herbauges
975 Thietmar of Merseburg a German chronicler who was also bishop of Merseburg.
1008 Anund Jacob King of Sweden from 1022 until around 1050. He is believed to have been born on July 25, in either 1008 or 1010 as Jakob. When the Swedish Thing was to elect him the co-ruler of Sweden, the people objected to his non-Scandinavian name. They then gave him the pronomen Anund. The line of kings appended to the Westrogothic law says that he was called Kolbränna as he had the habit of burning down the houses of his opponents
1016 Casimir I the Restorer a Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
1165 Ibn Arabi an Arab Andalusian Sufi mystic and philosopher.
1186 Hugh de Lacy Lord of Meath an Anglo-Norman magnate. He had substantial land holdings in Herefordshire and Shropshire, England. Following his participation in the Norman Invasion of Ireland, he was granted the lands of the Kingdom of Meath by the Anglo-Norman King Henry II of England in 1172. The Lordship of Meath was the most extensive liberty in Ireland
1201 Gruffydd ap Rhys II a prince of Deheubarth in south-west Wales.
1261 Arthur II Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany from 1305 to his death. He was the first son of John II and Beatrice, daughter of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence
1336 Albert I Duke of Bavaria a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat
1394 James I of Scotland the son of King Robert III and Annabella Drummond. He was the last of three sons and by the time he was eight both of his elder brothers were dead—Robert had died in infancy but David, Duke of Rothesay died suspiciously in Falkland Castle while being detained by his uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany. Although parliament exonerated Albany, fears for James's safety grew during the winter of 1405–6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was accompanying nobles close to his father when they clashed with supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas, forcing the prince to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock, a small islet in the Firth of Forth. He remained there until mid-March, when he boarded a vessel bound for France, but on 22 March while off the English coast, pirates captured the ship and delivered James to Henry IV of England. Two weeks later, on 4 April the ailing Robert III died, and the 12-year-old uncrowned King of Scots began his 18-year detention
1404 Philip I Duke of Brabant also known as Philip of Saint Pol , younger son of Antoine, Duke of Brabant and Jeanne of Saint-Pol, succeeded his brother John as Duke of Brabant in 1427. He had already been given Saint-Pol and Ligny as an appanage on the death of his grandfather Waleran III in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt
1421 Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland an English magnate.
1450 Jakob Wimpfeling a Renaissance humanist and theologian.
1486 Albrecht VII Duke of Mecklenburg a minor ruler in North Germany of the 16th century. He also asserted claims to Scandinavian thrones based on the royal lineage of the House of Mecklenburg
1556 George Peele most noted for his supposed but not universally accepted collaboration with William Shakespeare on the play Titus Andronicus.
1561 Katō Kiyomasa a Japanese daimyō of the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo period.
1573 Christoph Scheiner a Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer in Ingolstadt.
1642 Louis I Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco from 1662 until 1701.
1654 Agostino Steffani an Italian ecclesiastic, diplomat and composer.
1657 Philipp Heinrich Erlebach a German Baroque composer.
1658 Archibald Campbell 1st Duke of Argyll a Scottish peer.
1673 Santiago de Murcia a Spanish guitarist and composer.
1675 James Thornhill an English painter of historical subjects working in the Italian baroque tradition. He was responsible for some large-scale schemes of murals, including the "Painted Hall" at the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, the paintings on the inside of the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, and works at Chatsworth House and Wimpole Hall
1683 Pieter Langendijk a damask weaver, city artist, dramatist, and poet.
1725 Bernhard Rode a Prussian artist and engraver well known for portraying historical scenes and allegorical works. He knew most of the central figures in the Berlin Enlightenment as Friedrich Nicolai and Gotthold Lessing, and the philosophical and political discussions of the Berlin Philosophs informed much of the subject matter of his artistic work. His paintings include several works depicting, in various guises, the King of Prussia Frederick the Great, who ruled the Prussia during much of Rode's lifetime. Rode was director of the Berlin Academy of the Arts from 1783 until his death in 1797
1747 Roger Ducos a French political figure during the Revolution and First Empire, a member of the National Convention, and of the Directory.
1750 Henry Knox a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, and also served as the first United States Secretary of War.
1753 Santiago de Liniers 1st Count of Buenos Aires a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He is more widely known by the Spanish form of his name, Santiago de Liniers. He was popularly regarded as the hero of the reconquest of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion of the Río de la Plata, which led to his designation as viceroy, replacing Rafael de Sobremonte. Such a thing, the replacement of a viceroy without the King's direct intervention, was completely unprecedented. He was confirmed in office by Charles IV of Spain, and endured a second ill-fated British Invasion attempt and a mutiny that sought to replace him. He was replaced in 1809 by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, appointed as viceroy by the Junta of Seville, and retired from public activity. However, when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba. However, Liniers was defeated, captured, and executed without trial
1761 Charlotte von Kalb a German writer who associated with poets Friedrich Schiller, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Hölderlin and Jean Paul.
1763 Ivan Fyodorovich Emme a Russian lieutenant general in the Napoleonic Wars. He commanded the city defences at the Siege of Riga in 1812 and successfully repulsed Marshal Jacques MacDonald's invading forces
1773 Thomas Byam Martin a highly influential British Royal Navy officer who served at sea during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and then as a naval administrator until his death in 1854. Martin also sat in Parliament for 14 years and was an outspoken critic of government attempts to reduce the Navy budget which ultimately saw him dismissed in 1831 by his old friend King William IV
1775 Anna Harrison nominally First Lady of the United States during her husband's one-month term in 1841, but she never entered the White House. At the age of 65 years old during her husband's presidential term, she is the oldest woman ever to become First Lady, as well as having the distinction of holding the title for the shortest length of time, and the first person to be widowed while holding the title
1781 Merry-Joseph Blondel a French history painter of the Neoclassical school. He was a winner of the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1803. After the salon of 1824, he was bestowed with the rank of Knight in the order of the Legion d'Honneur by Charles X of France and offered a professorship at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts: a position in which he remained until his death in 1853. In 1832, he was elected to a seat at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris
1789 Mikhail Zagoskin a Russian writer of social comedies and historical novels.
1797 Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel the wife of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the tenth-born child, and seventh son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The longest-lived daughter-in-law of George III, she was the maternal grandmother of Mary of Teck, wife of George V
1798 Albert Knapp a German poet.
1800 Heinrich Göppert a German botanist and paleontologist.
1804 Carlo Bon Compagni di Mombello an Italian judge, educator and politician.
1806 John O'Donovan (scholar) an Irish language scholar from Ireland.
1808 Johann Benedict Listing a German mathematician.
1812 Robert Christian Avé-Lallemant a German physician and explorer who was a native of Lübeck. He was a brother to criminologist Friedrich Christian Benedict Avé-Lallemant and music critic Theodore Avé-Lallemant
1818 Santiago González (politician) President of El Salvador 15 April 1871 - 1 February 1876. He was a military officer and a member of the Liberal Party. He led a revolution in 1871 in which the conservative government was overthrown, and he amended the constitution
1818 Johann Jakob von Tschudi a Swiss naturalist, explorer and diplomat.
1823 Julius Victor Carus a German zoologist, comparative anatomist and entomologist.
1828 August Orth a German architect. He was employed by the Strousberg family to provide architectural service for their private accommodation and business ventures. Orth was born in Windhausen near Braunschweig and died in Berlin
1829 Elizabeth Siddal an English artists' model, poet and artist. She was painted and drawn extensively by artists of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, including Walter Deverell, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and her husband, Dante Gabriel Rossetti. She featured prominently in Rossetti's early paintings of women
1831 Cheoljong of Joseon the 25th king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was a distant relative of King Yeongjo
1837 Georg von Kopp a German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Bishop of Fulda and Prince-Bishop of Breslau.He was known for his anti-Polish views and pursued Germanization of his Polish parishioners.
1839 Francis Garnier a French officer and explorer known for his exploration of the Mekong River in Southeast Asia.
1840 Carroll D. Wright an American statistician.