Died on July 25

306 Constantius Chlorus Roman Emperor from 293 to 306, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty
1170 Reginald II Count of Bar a Count of Bar and Lord of Mousson from 1149 till his death. He was the son of Reginald I, Count of Bar and lord of Mousson, and Giselle of Vaudémont
1182 Marie I Countess of Boulogne the suo jure Countess of Boulogne from 1159 to 1170. She also held the post of Abbess of Romsey for five years until her abduction by Matthew of Alsace, who forced her to marry him
1195 Herrad of Landsberg a 12th-century Alsatian nun and abbess of Hohenburg Abbey in the Vosges mountains. She is known as the author of the pictorial encyclopedia Hortus deliciarum
1318 Nicholas I Duke of Troppau the natural son of Bohemian king Ottokar II Přemysl and his mistress Agnes of Kuenring. In 1269 he became Duke of Opava and thereby the progenitor of the Silesian cadet branch of the Přemyslid dynasty that lasted until 1521
1368 Guy de Chauliac a French physician and surgeon who wrote a lengthy and influential treatise on surgery in Latin, titled Chirurgia Magna. It was translated into many other languages and widely read by physicians in late medieval Europe
1391 John III Count of Armagnac a count of Armagnac, of Fézensac and Rodez from 1384 to 1391. He was the son of John II of Armagnac, and Jeanne of Périgord
1409 Martin I of Sicily King of Sicily from 1390 to 1409.
1445 Annibale I Bentivoglio a famous member of the Bolognese Bentivoglio family and the absolute ruler of the Italian city of Bologna from 1443 until his death.
1452 Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby an English baron and soldier in the Hundred Years' War.
1471 Thomas à Kempis one of the best known Christian books on devotion. His name means "Thomas of Kempen", his hometown, and in German he is known as Thomas von Kempen. He also is known by various spellings of his family name: Thomas Haemerkken; Thomas Hammerlein; Thomas Hemerken and Thomas Hämerken
1472 Gaston IV Count of Foix a French nobleman from Bearn, who founded a brief-ruling dynastic house of the Kingdom of Navarre.
1472 Charles of Artois Count of Eu Count of Eu from December 1397 until his death, 74 years later. He was appointed Lieutenant of the King in Normandy and Guyenne, and Governor of Paris. He was taken prisoner by the English at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415, and was not released until 1438. In 1448, he married Jeanne of Saveuse and on 23 September 1454, Helene of Melun , but he had no children. He was succeeded by his nephew John II, Count of Nevers
1492 Pope Innocent VIII Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492.
1564 Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
1572 Isaac Luria a foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region of Ottoman Palestine. He is considered the father of contemporary Kabbalah, his teachings being referred to as Lurianic Kabbalah. While his direct literary contribution to the Kabbalistic school of Safed was extremely minute , his spiritual fame led to their veneration and the acceptance of his authority. The works of his disciples compiled his oral teachings into writing. Every custom of the Ari was scrutinized, and many were accepted, even against previous practice
1608 Pomponio Nenna a Neapolitan Italian composer of the Renaissance. He is mainly remembered for his madrigals, which were influenced by Gesualdo, and for his polychoral sacred motets, posthumously published as Sacrae Hebdomadae Responsoria in 1622
1608 Bartholomäus Keckermann a German writer, Calvinist theologian and philosopher. He is known for his Analytic Method. As a writer on rhetoric, he is compared to Gerhard Johann Vossius, and considered influential in Northern Europe and England
1616 Andreas Libavius a German doctor and chemist.
1634 Francesco de' Medici (1614–1634) the fourth son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria. He died unmarried
1640 Fabio Colonna an Italian naturalist and botanist.
1643 Robert Pierrepont 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull an English nobleman who joined the Royalist side in the English Civil War after some delay and became lieutenant-general of the counties of Lincoln, Rutland, Huntingdon, Cambridge and Norfolk. He was killed in a friendly fire incident after being captured by Parliamentary forces
1646 Maria Caterina Farnese a member of the Ducal House of Farnese. She was the Duchess of Modena as the first wife of Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena. In some sources she is known simply as Maria Farnese
1661 Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette d'Épernon the son of Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette and Marguerite de Foix-Candale, granddaughter of the constable of Montmorency. Through his mother's line, Bernard could also claim the English title of Earl of Kendal, originally granted to his ancestor John de Foix in 1446
1666 Henri Count of Harcourt a French nobleman. He was count of Harcourt, count of Armagnac, count of Brionne and viscount of Marsan. He was the younger son of Charles I, Duke of Elbeuf and his wife Marguerite de Chabot, countess of Charny
1681 Urian Oakes an English-born American minister and educator.
1694 Hishikawa Moronobu a Japanese artist known for popularizing the ukiyo-e genre of woodblock prints and paintings in the late 17th century.
1710 Gottfried Kirch a German astronomer and the first 'Astronomer Royal' in Berlin and, as such, director of the nascent Berlin Observatory.
1736 Jean-Baptiste Pater a French rococo painter.
1790 Johann Bernhard Basedow a German educational reformer, teacher and writer. He founded the Philanthropinum, a short-lived but influential progressive school in Dessau, and was the author of "Elementarwerk", a popular illustrated textbook for children
1790 William Livingston a signer of the United States Constitution.
1791 Isaac Low an American merchant in New York City.
1794 Jean-Antoine Roucher a French poet.
1794 André Chénier a French poet of Greek origin, associated with the events of the French Revolution of which he was a victim. His sensual, emotive poetry marks him as one of the precursors of the Romantic movement. His career was brought to an abrupt end when he was guillotined for alleged "crimes against the state", near the end of the Reign of Terror. Chénier's life has been the subject of Umberto Giordano's opera Andrea Chénier and other works of art
1794 Friedrich von der Trenck a Prussian officer, adventurer, and author.
1803 Gavriil Kamenev a Russian poet, writer, and translator.
1814 Charles Dibdin a British musician, songwriter, dramatist, novelist and actor. With over 600 songs to his name, for many of which he wrote both the lyrics and the music and performed them himself, he was in his time the most prolific English singer-songwriter. He is best known as the composer of the song "Tom Bowling", which often features at the Last Night of the Proms
1815 Spiridon Zhevakhov a Russian general of Georgian noble descent and a participant of the Napoleonic Wars.
1826 Pavel Pestel a Russian revolutionary and ideologue of the Decembrists.
1831 Maria Agata Szymanowska a Polish composer and one of the first professional virtuoso pianists of the 19th century. She toured extensively throughout Europe, especially in the 1820s, before settling permanently in Petersburg. In the Russian imperial capital, she composed for the court, gave concerts, taught music, and ran an influential salon
1832 František Josef Gerstner a Bohemian physicist and engineer.
1834 Samuel Taylor Coleridge an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as the major prose work Biographia Literaria. His critical work, especially on Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. He coined many familiar words and phrases, including the celebrated suspension of disbelief. He was a major influence on Emerson, and American transcendentalism
1834 Nathan Wilson a United States Representative from New York. Born in Bolton, Worcester County, Massachusetts, he moved with his family to Greenwich, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, where he attended school. He served two enlistments in Massachusetts regiments during the Revolutionary War in 1777 and 1780 and moved to New Perth , Washington County, New York. He enlisted as a private in the Sixteenth Regiment, Albany County Militia and was appointed by Governor George Clinton in 1791 adjutant in Washington County Militia Regiment. He was town collector in 1801 and 1802 and sheriff of Washington County from 1802 to 1806
1835 François René Mallarmé a French statesman of the French Revolution and a supporter of Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire. His career is of particular interest because he was among political figures such as Joseph Fouché who at first aggressively supported the Terror, only to betray its leaders and support the various conservative reactionary régimes that followed. His was a chevalier de l'Empire from 22 November 1808 and a baron de l'Empire from 31 January 1810
1836 Armand Carrel a French journalist and political writer.
1837 Pavel Schilling a diplomat of Baltic German origin employed in the service of Russia in Germany, and who built a pioneering electrical telegraph. It consisted of a single needle system which used a telegraph code to indicate the characters in a message
1838 Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky , Russian Prince, statesman and military leader.
1842 Dominique Jean Larrey a French surgeon in Napoleon's army and an important innovator in battlefield medicine.
1843 Carl Friedrich von Rumohr a German art historian, writer, draughtsman and painter, agricultural historian, connoisseur of and writer about the culinary arts, art collector and patron of artists.
1843 Charles Macintosh a Scottish chemist and inventor of waterproof fabrics. The Mackintosh raincoat is named for him