July 25 events in history

285 Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler
306 Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops
315 The Arch of Constantine is completed near the Colosseum in Rome to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge
864 The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings
1137 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Prince Louis, eldest son of King Louis VII of France, at the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux
1139 Battle of Ourique: The Almoravids, led by Ali ibn Yusuf, are defeated by Prince Afonso Henriques
1261 The city of Constantinople is recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire
1278 The naval Battle of Algeciras takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista resulting in a victory for the Emirate of Granada and the Maranid Dynasty over the Kingdom of Castile
1467 The Battle of Molinella: The first battle in Italy in which firearms are used extensively
1536 Sebastián de Belalcázar on his search of El Dorado founds the city of Santiago de Cali
1538 The city of Guayaquil is founded by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana and given the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil
1547 Henry II of France is crowned
1554 Mary I marries Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral
1567 Don Diego de Losada founds the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, modern-day Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela
1593 Henry IV of France publicly converts from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism
1603 James VI of Scotland is crowned king of England (James I of England), bringing the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into personal union. Political union would occur in 1707
1609 The English ship Sea Venture, en route to Virginia, is deliberately driven ashore during a storm at Bermuda to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony there
1693 Ignacio de Maya founds the Real Santiago de las Sabinas, now known as Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Mexico
1722 Dummer's War begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border
1755 British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council order the deportation of the Acadians. Thousands of Acadians are sent to the British Colonies in America, France and England. Some later move to Louisiana, while others resettle in New Brunswick
1759 French and Indian War: In Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé
1783 American Revolutionary War: The war's last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by a preliminary peace agreement
1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completes his Symphony No. 40 in G minor (K550)
1792 The Brunswick Manifesto is issued to the population of Paris promising vengeance if the French Royal Family is harmed
1795 The first stone of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is laid
1797 Horatio Nelson loses more than 300 men and his right arm during the failed conquest attempt of Tenerife (Spain)
1799 At Abu Qir in Egypt, Napoleon I of France defeats 10,000 Ottomans under Mustafa Pasha
1814 War of 1812: Battle of Lundy's Lane – reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall's British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 18.00; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie
1824 Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua
1837 The first commercial use of an electrical telegraph is successfully demonstrated by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone on July 25, 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London
1853 Joaquin Murrieta, the famous Californio bandit known as "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed
1861 American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution, stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery
1866 The United States Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank
1868 Wyoming becomes a United States territory
1869 The Japanese daimyo begin returning their land holdings to the emperor as part of the Meiji Restoration reforms. (Traditional Japanese Date: June 17, 1869)
1893 The Corinth Canal in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece is used for the first time
1894 The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship
1898 After over two months of sea-based bombardment, the United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops led by General Nelson Miles landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico
1908 Ajinomoto is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers that a key ingredient in kombu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and patents a process for manufacturing it
1909 Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine from (Calais to Dover, England, United Kingdom) in 37 minutes
1915 RFC Captain Lanoe Hawker becomes the first British military aviator to earn the Victoria Cross, for defeating three German two-seat observation aircraft in one day, over the Western Front
1917 Sir Robert Borden introduces the first income tax in Canada as a "temporary" measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%)
1920 France captures Damascus
1925 Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) is established
1934 The Nazis assassinate Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed coup attempt
1940 General Henri Guisan orders the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and makes surrender illegal
1942 Norwegian Manifesto calls for nonviolent resistance to the Nazis
1943 World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio
1944 World War II: Operation Spring – one of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war: One thousand five hundred casualties, including 500 killed
1946 At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis stage their first show as a comedy team