Born on July 26

1030 Stanislaus of Szczepanów a Bishop of Kraków known chiefly for having been martyred by the Polish king Bolesław II the Bold. Stanislaus is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Stanislaus the Martyr
1043 Moses the Hungarian a Kievan Russian monk of Hungarian origin. He is venerated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church
1439 Sigismund Duke of Bavaria a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He ruled as Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, and then as Duke of Bavaria-Dachau until his death
1584 Gaspard III de Coligny a French Protestant general.
1612 Murad IV the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ahmed I and the ethnic Greek Valide Kösem Sultan. Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa He was only 11 when he took the throne
1622 Christian Augustus Count Palatine of Sulzbach the Count Palatine of Sulzbach from 1632 until 1708.
1665 Erhard Ernst von Röder a Prussian Field Marshal General, Minister of War and Minister of Finance.
1678 Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711. He was the eldest son of Emperor Leopold I from his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687, and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690. He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died
1683 Carlo Alberto Guidoboni Cavalchini an Italian Cardinal. Considered papabile in the Papal conclave, 1758, he was vetoed by Louis XV of France under the jus exclusivae
1711 Lorenz Christoph Mizler a German physician, historian, printer, mathematician, Baroque music composer, and precursor of the Polish Enlightenment.
1727 Horatio Gates a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga — a matter of contemporary and historical controversy — and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden. Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial military figures" because of his role in the Conway Cabal, which attempted to discredit and replace George Washington; the battle at Saratoga; and his actions during and after his defeat at Camden
1737 Georg Melchior Kraus a German painter. A student of Johann Heinrich Tischbein, he was also a teacher himself , as well as an entrepreneur and friend of Goethe. He was a co-founder of the Fürstliche freie Zeichenschule Weimar with Friedrich Justin Bertuch in 1776
1739 George Clinton (vice president) an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795, then again from 1801 to 1804, then serving as the fourth Vice President of the United States from 1805 to 1812, serving under Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Until the election of Terry Branstad of Iowa in November 2014, he was the longest-serving governor in the history of the United States , and he and John Calhoun are the only persons to have served as Vice President under two different U.S. Presidents
1741 Catherine Antonovna of Brunswick daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick and Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia. Born a few days before the desposition of her brother Ivan VI, she was imprisoned by Empress Elizabeth of Russia along with her family from 1742 to 1780 at Kholmogory, and in 1780, she and two brothers and a sister were placed under house arrest for the rest of their lives in Horsens. She was the last descendant of Ivan V of Russia
1782 John Field (composer) an Irish pianist, composer, and teacher. He was born in Dublin into a musical family, and received his early education there. The Fields soon moved to London, where Field studied under Muzio Clementi. Under his tutelage, Field quickly became a famous and sought-after concert pianist; together, master and pupil visited Paris, Vienna, and Petersburg. Ambiguity surrounds Field's decision to remain in the Russian capital, but it is likely that Field acted as a sales representative for the Clementi Pianos
1787 Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck a German botanist and pharmacologist who was a native of Schloss Reichenberg in Reichelsheim. He was a younger brother to naturalist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck
1791 Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart the youngest child of six born to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his wife Constanze. He was the younger of his parents' two surviving children. He was a composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher from the late classical period whose musical style was of an early Romanticism, heavily influenced by his father's mature style
1794 Johan Georg Forchhammer a Danish mineralogist and geologist.
1796 George Catlin an American painter, author and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. By travelling to the American West five times during the 1830s, Catlin is the first person to visually record Plains Indians in their native territory
1797 William Gore Ouseley a British diplomat who served in various roles in Washington, D.C., Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. His main achievement were negotiations concerning ownership of Britain's interests in what is now Honduras and Nicaragua
1799 Isaac Babbitt used extensively in engine bearings today.
1802 Mariano Arista a noted veteran of many of Mexico's nineteenth-century wars. He served as president of Mexico from 15 January 1851 to 6 January 1853
1805 Constantino Brumidi an Italian-American historical painter, best known and honored for his fresco work in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC.
1815 Robert Remak a Polish/German embryologist, physiologist, and neurologist, born in Posen, Prussia. Remak obtained his medical degree from Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin in 1838 specializing in neurology. He is best known for reducing Karl Ernst von Baer's four germ layers to three: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. He also discovered unmyelinated nerve fibres and the nerve cells in the heart sometimes called Remak's ganglia. He studied under Johannes Muller at the University of Berlin
1817 Bernhard Windscheid a German jurist and a member of the pandectistic school of law thought. He became famous with his essay on the legal concept of action, which sparkled a debate with Theodor Muther that is said to have initiated the studies of the processal law as we know it today
1819 Justin Holland an American classical guitarist, a music teacher, a community leader, a black man who worked with white people to help slaves on the Underground Railroad, and an activist for equal rights for African Americans.
1822 Jakob Dubs a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council. Along with Gustave Moynier and Guillaume-Henri Dufour, he founded the Swiss Red Cross in July of 1866, and served as its first President until 1872
1829 Auguste Marie François Beernaert the 14th Prime Minister of Belgium from October 1884 to March 1894.
1832 John Wesley Emerson an American lawyer, American Civil War commander, Missouri Circuit Court judge, and the founder and principal investor of the Emerson Electric Company.
1841 Carl Robert Jakobson an Estonian writer, politician and teacher active in Livonia, Russian Empire. He was one of the most important persons of Estonian national awakening in the second half of the 19th century
1842 Alfred Marshall one of the most influential economists of his time. His book, Principles of Economics , was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years. It brings the ideas of supply and demand, marginal utility, and costs of production into a coherent whole. He is known as one of the founders of economics
1842 Berthold Delbrück a German linguist who devoted himself to the study of the comparative syntax of the Indo-European languages.
1844 Stefan Drzewiecki a Polish-Russian scientist, journalist, engineer, constructor and inventor, working in Russia and France.
1846 Texas Jack Omohundro a frontier scout, actor, and cowboy.
1846 Hermann von Kaulbach a German painter of the Munich School.
1853 Martin Segitz an acting Bavarian Minister-President and member of the SPD.
1854 Philippe Gaucher a French dermatologist born in the department of Nièvre.
1855 Ferdinand Tönnies a German sociologist and philosopher. He was a major contributor to sociological theory and field studies, best known for his distinction between two types of social groups, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. He was also a prolific writer and co-founder of the German Society for Sociology, of which he was president from 1909 to 1933
1856 Edward Anseele a Belgian socialist politician. Although his parents rather belonged to the lower middle class , Edward Anseele became active in the early socialist movement. Anseele attended the Royal Athenaeum in Ghent until the age of 17
1856 George Bernard Shaw an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. He was also an essayist, novelist and short story writer. Nearly all his writings address prevailing social problems with a vein of comedy which makes their stark themes more palatable. Issues which engaged Shaw's attention included education, marriage, religion, government, health care, and class privilege
1856 William Rainey Harper one of the leading American academic leaders of the late 19th century and the early 20th century. Harper helped to establish both the University of Chicago and Bradley University, and he served as the first presidents of both institutions
1857 Paul Lancrenon a French soldier and amateur photographer.
1858 Edward M. House a powerful American diplomat, politician, and presidential advisor, commonly known by the courtesy title Colonel House, although he had no military experience. He was a highly influential back-stage politician in Texas before becoming a key supporter of the presidential bid of Woodrow Wilson in 1912. He did not hold office but was Wilson's chief advisor on European politics and diplomacy during World War I and at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. In 1919 Wilson broke with House and several other top advisors, believing they had deceived him at Paris
1858 Ferdinand Albin Pax a German botanist and entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera, Diptera, and spermatophytes. He described several species
1858 Tom Garrett an early Australian Test cricketer and, later, a distinguished public servant.
1859 Virginie Demont-Breton a French painter.
1859 Vladimir Ivanovich Markov a Finnish Lieutenant General who was also the vice-chairman of the economic division of the Senate of Finland from 1909 to 1913 and the last Finnish Minister Secretary of State in Saint Petersburg from 1913 to 1917.
1861 Vazha-Pshavela the pen name of the Georgian poet and writer Luka Razikashvili , noted Georgian patriot and author of the highest calibre in the field of Georgian literature.
1862 Vasil Kanchov a Bulgarian geographer, ethnographer and politician.
1862 George B. Cortelyou an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century.