Died on July 26

342 Emperor Cheng of Jin an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Emperor Ming and became the crown prince on April 1, 325. During his reign, the administration was largely dominated by a succession of regents—initially his uncle Yu Liang, then Wang Dao, then the joint administration of He Chong and another uncle Yu Bing. He became emperor at age four, and soon after his accession to the throne, the disastrous rebellion of Su Jun weakened Jin forces for decades
432 Pope Celestine I Pope from 10 September 422 to his death in 432. According to the Liber Pontificalis, the start of his papacy was 3 November. However, Tillemont places the date at 10 September
811 Nikephoros I Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
1380 Emperor Kōmyō the 2nd of the Ashikaga Pretenders, although he was actually the first to be supported by the Ashikaga Bakufu. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1336 through 1348
1471 Pope Paul II Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471.
1506 Anne of Foix-Candale a Queen consort of Hungary as the third consort of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.
1527 Jovan Nenad a Serb military commander in the service of the Kingdom of Hungary who took advantage of a Hungarian military defeat at Mohács and subsequent struggle over the Hungarian throne to carve out his own state and styled himself emperor. He ruled for a short time over parts of a southern Pannonian Plain
1533 Atahualpa the last Sapa Inca of the Tawantinsuyu before the Spanish conquest. Atahualpa became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac, from an infectious disease
1577 Blaise de Lasseran-Massencôme seigneur de Montluc a marshal of France.
1592 Armand de Gontaut baron de Biron a celebrated French soldier of the 16th century.
1605 Miguel de Benavides a Spanish clergyman and sinologist who was the third Archbishop of Manila. He previously served as the first Bishop of the Diocese of Nueva Segovia, and was the founder of the University of Santo Tomas in the City of Manila
1615 Alonso Pérez de Guzmán 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armada.
1618 Martinus Smiglecius a Polish Jesuit philosopher, known for his erudite scholastic Logica of 1618.
1630 Charles Emmanuel I Duke of Savoy the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was also nicknamed Testa d'feu for his rashness and military attitudes
1651 Hendrik van der Borcht the elder a Flemish engraver and still life painter of flowers and fruit, who was mainly active in Germany.
1680 John Wilmot 2nd Earl of Rochester an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court. The Restoration reacted against the "spiritual authoritarianism" of the Puritan era. Rochester was the embodiment of the new era, and he is as well known for his rakish lifestyle as his poetry, although the two were often interlinked. In 1669 he committed treason by boxing the ears of Thomas Killigrew in sight of the monarch, and in 1673 he accidentally delivered an insulting diatribe to the King. He died at the age of 33 from venereal disease
1684 Elena Cornaro Piscopia a Venetian philosopher of noble descent, and the first woman to receive a doctoral degree from a university.
1691 Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke of Newcastle an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1676, and then inherited the dukedom.
1693 Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark the Queen consort of Sweden as the spouse of King Charles XI of Sweden.
1703 Gérard Audran a French engraver of the Audran family, the third son of Claude Audran.
1716 Paolo Alessandro Maffei an antiquarian with a humanist education, who was active in Rome. Maffei was the son of Paolo Maffei and his wife Giovanna di Raffaele, both of patrician families of Volterra. He was a descendant of the humanist and papal bureaucrat Raffaele Maffei, "il Volterrano," , author of the Commentaria urbana , dedicated to Julius Paolo Alessandro was made a cavaliere of the Tuscan Order of Saint Stephen and an honorary member of the Papal Guard. He wrote the laudatory biography of Pope Pius V, in which he praised the Pope's suppression of newsletters and slanderous printed avvisi in 1572
1723 Robert Bertie 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven a British statesman and nobleman.
1741 Wilhelm Heinrich Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach.
1767 Paul Gottlieb Werlhof a German physician and poet who was a native of Helmstedt.
1793 Alessandro Besozzi an Italian composer and virtuoso oboist. He was a member of the ducal Guardia Irlandese from 1714, a hautboy band created by Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma in 1702, where he worked with his father Cristoforo Besozzi and his brothers Giuseppe and Paolo Girolamo Besozzi. After leaving the company on 20 April 1731, he worked in Turin with his brother Paolo Girolamo at the court of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia
1801 Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria Archbishop and Elector Spiritual of Cologne , Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and the last child of the Habsburg ruler of Austria Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Not only his father, the ex-Duke of Lorraine, but also two of his brothers and one of his nephews were Holy Roman Emperors: Joseph II, Leopold II and, until his abdication in 1806 , Francis II; and two of his sisters were Queen Consorts: Marie Antoinette of France and Maria Carolina of the Two Sicilies. He was the last fully functioning Elector of Cologne and was the employer and patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven
1806 Karoline von Günderrode a German Romantic poet, born in Karlsruhe.
1815 Khariton Chebotaryov a rector of the Moscow University , state counsellor, and ordinary professor of history, morality, and eloquence.
1847 Duke Adam of Württemberg a Duke of Württemberg and General in Russian and Polish-Russian service.
1854 Mary Abigail Fillmore the daughter of President Millard Fillmore and Abigail Powers, and was the White House Hostess from 1850 to 1853 due to her mother's illness.
1854 George Brettingham Sowerby I a British naturalist, illustrator, and conchologist.
1863 Sam Houston an American politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state. His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico. The only American to be elected governor of two different States , he was also the only Southern governor to oppose secession and to refuse an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, a decision that led to his removal from office by the Texas secession convention
1863 Emma Livry one of the last ballerinas of the Romantic ballet era and a protégée of Marie Taglioni. She died from complications after burn injuries sustained when her costume caught fire during a rehearsal
1864 András Fáy a Hungarian author, lawyer, politician and businessman.
1867 Otto of Greece a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London. He reigned until his deposition in 1862
1872 José Balta a Peruvian soldier and politician who was president of Peru from 1868 to 1872. He was the son of John Balta Bru and Agustina Montero Casafranca
1872 Michele Carafa an Italian opera composer. He was born in Naples and studied in Paris with Luigi Cherubini. He was Professor of counterpoint at the Paris Conservatoire from 1840 to 1858. One of his notable pupils was Achille Peri
1872 Tomás Gutiérrez a Peruvian military man who led a coup against President José Balta Montero. From July 22, 1872 to July 26, 1872, Gutiérrez Nino de Guzman was the de facto leader of Peru and the self-proclaimed "Supreme Leader of the Republic." He was overthrown just four days after his proclamation and lynched. Peru later regained some political stability with the election on Manuel Pardo, although this stability was short-lived as a foreign threat began to arise in Chile
1873 Samuel Simon Schmucker a German-American Lutheran pastor and theologian. He was integral to the founding of the Lutheran church body known as the General Synod, as well as the oldest continuously-operating Lutheran seminary and college in North America
1881 George Borrow an English author who wrote novels and travelogues based on his experiences traveling around Europe. Over the course of his wanderings, he developed a close affinity with the Romani people of Europe, who figure prominently in his work. His best known books are The Bible in Spain, the autobiographical Lavengro, and The Romany Rye, about his time with the English Romanichal
1883 Sir William Williams 1st Baronet of Kars a Nova Scotian and renowned military leader for the British during the Victorian era.
1884 George Brettingham Sowerby II a British naturalist, illustrator, and conchologist. Together with his father, George Brettingham Sowerby I, he published the Thesaurus Conchyliorum and other illustrated works on molluscs. He was the father of George Brettingham Sowerby III, also a malacologist
1890 Olexander Paul a Ukrainian archaeologist, geologist, ethnographer and businessman who became world famous after discovering Kryvbas, the main iron ore region of Eastern Europe. He studied Krivoy Rog iron ore for 15 years and proved its industrial importance, personally contributed to the fact that in 1881 began industrial development, which determined the further rapid economic development of Dnieper region
1900 Henry G. Blasdel an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. He was the first Governor of Nevada, serving during the American Civil War and the first years of the Reconstruction era
1902 Baldomer Galofre a Catalonian painter.
1915 James Murray (lexicographer) a Scottish lexicographer and philologist. He was the primary editor of the Oxford English Dictionary from 1879 until his death
1918 Mick Mannock a British First World War flying ace. Mannock was possibly born in Ireland and was of English and Scottish parentage
1919 Edward Poynter an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy.
1924 William Robert Ogilvie-Grant a Scottish ornithologist.
1925 Antonio Ascari an Italian Grand Prix motor racing champion.