Born on July 27

1452 Ludovico Sforza Duke of Milan from 1489 until 1500. A member of the Sforza family, he was the second son of Francesco I Sforza. He was famed as a patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists, and presided over the final and most productive stage of the Milanese Renaissance. He is probably best known as the man who commissioned The Last Supper
1452 Lucrezia Crivelli a mistress of Ludovico Sforza, il Moro, Duke of Milan. She was the mother of Sforza's son, Giovanni Paolo I Sforza, Marquess of Caravaggio. Crivelli has been thought to be the subject of Leonardo da Vinci's painting, La belle ferronnière
1516 Emilie of Saxony the third wife of Margrave George the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach. Since his two earlier wives died before his accession, she was the only one to enjoy the title Margravine
1599 Albert IV Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a ruler of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach. He was the seventh son of Johann, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, and Dorothea Maria of Anhalt. His regnal name Albert IV derives from the numbering of the duchy of Saxony as a whole, not specifically to the succession in Saxe-Eisenach
1625 Edward Montagu 1st Earl of Sandwich an English Infantry officer who later became a naval officer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660.
1629 Princess Luisa Cristina of Savoy a Princess of Savoy by birth and the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. She married her uncle Prince Maurice of Savoy but had no children. She was the owner of the future Villa della Regina. She was a first cousin of Louis XIV of France and Charles II of England
1660 Johann Patkul a Livonian nobleman, politician, and agitator of Baltic German extraction. Born as a subject to the Swedish Crown, his protests against the manner of Charles XI of Sweden's reduction in Livonia enraged the king to the point of having him arrested and sentenced to mutilation and death. Patkul fled from the Swedish empire to continental Europe, playing a key role in the secret diplomacy allying Peter the Great of Russia, Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania as well as Christian V and his successor Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway against Charles XII of Sweden, triggering the Great Northern War. During the first war years, Patkul retained a key role in the communication between the allies and other European courts, holding positions at king Augustus' court first in Augustus', then in tsar Peter's service. In late 1705 Patkul fell from Augustus' favor and was arrested and charged with high treason. Throughout the following year he was detained first in Sonnenstein, then in Königstein , before Charles XII forced Augustus to extradite him by the treaty of Altranstädt in late 1706. Patkul spent another year in Swedish detention before Charles XII had him broken on the wheel and decapitated
1733 Jeremiah Dixon best known for his work with Charles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line.
1734 Princess Sophie of France a French princesse du sang. She was the sixth daughter and eighth child of Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Marie Leszczyńska. First known as Madame Cinquième, she later became Madame Sophie
1740 Jeanne Baré a member of Louis Antoine de Bougainville's expedition on the ships La Boudeuse and Étoile in 1766–1769. Baret is recognized as the first woman to have completed a voyage of circumnavigation
1741 François-Hippolyte Barthélémon a French violinist, pedagogue, and composer active in England.
1752 Samuel Smith (Maryland) a United States Senator and Representative from Maryland, a mayor of Baltimore, Maryland, and a general in the Maryland militia. He was the brother of cabinet secretary Robert Smith
1753 Christian Jakob Kraus a German comparative and historical linguist.
1765 Duchess Frederica of Württemberg a daughter of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
1768 Charlotte Corday a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed under the guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat
1768 Joseph Anton Koch perhaps the most significant neoclassical landscape painter.
1773 Jacob Aall a Norwegian politician, historian, landowner and government economist.
1773 Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily a Neapolitan and Sicilian princess and the wife of the third Habsburg Grand Duke of Tuscany.
1777 Heinrich Wilhelm Brandes a German physicist, meteorologist, and astronomer.
1777 Henry Trevor 21st Baron Dacre a British peer and soldier.
1777 Thomas Campbell (poet) a Scottish poet chiefly remembered for his sentimental poetry dealing especially with human affairs. He was also one of the initiators of a plan to found what became the University of London. In 1799, he wrote "The Pleasures of Hope", a traditional 18th century didactic poem in heroic couplets. He also produced several stirring patriotic war songs—"Ye Mariners of England", "The Soldier's Dream", "Hohenlinden" and in 1801, "The Battle of Mad and Strange Turkish Princes"
1779 Gustav von Ewers a German legal historian and the founder of Russian legal history as a scholarly discipline.
1780 Anastasio Bustamante president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. He was a Conservative. He first came to power by leading a coup against president Vicente Guerrero. Bustamante was deposed twice and exiled to Europe each time
1781 Mauro Giuliani an Italian guitarist, cellist, singer, and composer. A leading guitar virtuoso of the early 19th century
1784 Denis Davydov a Russian soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars who invented a specific genre – hussar poetry noted for its hedonism and bravado – and spectacularly designed his own life to illustrate such poetry.
1784 George Onslow (composer) a French composer of English descent. His wealth, position and personal tastes allowed him to pursue a path unfamiliar to most of his French contemporaries, more similar to that of his contemporary German romantic composers; his music also had a strong following in Germany and in England. His principal output was chamber music but he also wrote four symphonies and four operas. Esteemed by many of the critics of his time, his reputation declined swiftly after his death and has only been revived in recent years
1795 Ludwig Bledow a German chess master and chess organizer. In 1846 he founded the first German chess magazine, Schachzeitung der Berliner Schachgesellschaft, which would later take the name Deutsche Schachzeitung
1801 George Biddell Airy an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. His many achievements include work on planetary orbits, measuring the mean density of the Earth, a method of solution of two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics and, in his role as Astronomer Royal, establishing Greenwich as the location of the prime meridian. His reputation has been tarnished by allegations that, through his inaction, Britain lost the opportunity of priority in the discovery of Neptune
1806 Franz Stadion Count von Warthausen Graf von Warthausen , son of the Austrian diplomat Johann Philipp von Stadion. Born in Vienna, he was a statesman who served the Austrian Empire during the 1840s. From 1841 he was Governor of the Austrian Littoral , from 1847 to 1848 Governor of Galicia , and from 1848 to 1849 he was Interior Minister and Minister of Education. He advocated constitutional government, decreed the Imposed March Constitution in March 1849 which was never enacted, and in 1849 promulgated the Gemeinde legislation that granted governmental autonomy to all municipalities in the Austrian empire. Lewis Namier, in 1848: The Revolution of the Intellectuals , calls him "one of the most enlightened and efficient Austrian administrators."
1808 Moritz Haupt a German philologist.
1812 Thomas Lanier Clingman a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from 1843 to 1845 and from 1847 to 1858, and U.S. senator from the state of North Carolina between 1858 and 1861. During the Civil War he refused to resign his Senate seat and was one of ten senators expelled from the Senate in absentia. He then served as a general in the Confederate States Army
1818 Agostino Roscelli an Italian priest who inspired social change in Genoa, Italy for children and disadvantaged women. He was canonized a saint in the Roman Catholic Church in 2001 by Pope John Paul II
1820 Hubert von Luschka a German anatomist. He lent his name to several structures, including the foramina of Luschka, Luschka's crypts, Luschka's law, Luschka's joints, and Ducts of Luschka
1822 John Baylor a politician in Texas and a colonel in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was removed as military governor of Arizona Territory by Jefferson Davis, who disapproved of his murderous intentions towards the Apaches
1824 Alexandre Dumas fils a French writer and dramatist, best known for Camille. He was the son of Alexandre Dumas, père, also a writer and playwright
1827 Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov an influential Russian statesman and a counselor to Tsar Alexander Referring to his court influence and reactionary policies, his more liberal opponents sometimes called him "Peter IV" and "Arakcheev II".
1831 Ludvig Nobel an engineer, a noted businessman and a humanitarian. One of the most prominent members of the Nobel family, he was the son of Immanuel Nobel and the older brother of Alfred Nobel. With his brother Robert, he operated Branobel, an oil company in Baku, Azerbaijan which at one point produced 50% of the world's oil. He is credited with creating the Russian oil industry. Ludvig Nobel built the largest fortune of any of the Nobel brothers and was one of the world's richest men. Following the Bolshevik revolution, the communists confiscated the Nobel family's vast fortune in Russia
1832 Hesba Stretton the pen name of Sarah Smith , an English writer of children's books. She concocted the name from the initials of herself and four surviving siblings and part of the name of a Shropshire village she visited, All Stretton, where her sister Anne owned a house, Caradoc Lodge
1832 Đura Jakšić a Serbian poet, painter, writer, dramatist, bohemian and patriot.
1833 Thomas George Bonney an English geologist.
1834 Miguel Grau Seminario the most renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific. He was known as el Caballero de los Mares for his chivalry and is esteemed by both Peruvians and Chileans. He is an iconic figure for the Peruvian Navy, and one of the most famous merchant marine and naval military leaders of America
1835 Giosuè Carducci an Italian poet and teacher. He was very influential and was regarded as the official national poet of modern Italy. In 1906 he became the first Italian to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"
1840 Ranald S. Mackenzie a career United States Army officer and general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, described by General Ulysses Grant as its most promising young officer. He also served with great distinction in the following Indian Wars
1848 Boris Stürmer a Master of Ceremonies at the Court and a corrupt and incompetent Russian statesman. He was a member of the Russian Assembly, served as Prime Minister, Interior Minister and Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire during 1916. Under his administration the country suffered drastic inflation and a transportation breakdown, which led to severe food shortages. Stürmer simply let matters drift until he was able to be relieved of this post
1848 Victor Noir famous for the manner of his death and its political consequences. His tomb in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris later became a fertility symbol
1848 Filippo Smaldone a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He founded the Salesian Sisters of the Sacred Hearts and is known for his work with the deaf
1848 Friedrich Ernst Dorn emitted from radium.
1848 Loránd Eötvös a Hungarian physicist. He is remembered today largely for his work on gravitation and surface tension, and the invention of the torsion pendulum
1848 Thomas Herbst (painter) a German impressionist painter and founding member of the Hamburgischer Künstlerklub.
1848 Vladimir de Pachmann a pianist of Russian-German ethnicity, especially noted for performing the works of Chopin, and also for his eccentric on-stage style.