Died on July 27

916 Clement of Ohrid a medieval Bulgarian saint, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs. He was the most prominent disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius and is often associated with the creation of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic scripts, especially their popularisation among Christianised Slavs. He was the founder of the Ohrid Literary School and is regarded as a patron of education and language by some Slavic nations. He is regarded to be the first bishop of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, one of the seven Apostles of the Bulgarian Empire , the patron saint of the Republic of Macedonia, the city of Ohrid and the Macedonian Orthodox Church
959 Chai Rong the second emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Zhou during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 954 until his death. He succeeded his uncle-in-law Guo Wei, whose surname he had adopted
1061 Pope Nicholas II Pope from 24 January 1059 to his death in 1061. At the time of his election, he was Bishop of Florence
1101 Hugh d'Avranches 1st Earl of Chester the second Norman Earl of Chester and one of the great magnates of early Norman England.
1101 Conrad II of Italy the Duke of Lower Lorraine , King of Germany and King of Italy. He was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Bertha of Savoy, and their eldest son to reach adulthood, his older brother Henry having been born and died in the same month of August 1071. Although Conrad's rule in Lorraine and Germany was nominal, he spent most of his life in Italy and there he was king in fact as well as in name
1158 Geoffrey Count of Nantes Count of Nantes from 1156 to 1158. He was also known as Geoffrey of Anjou and Geoffrey FitzEmpress
1233 Ferdinand Count of Flanders reigned as jure uxoris Count of Flanders and Hainaut from his marriage to Countess Joan, celebrated in Paris in 1212, until his death. He was born in Coimbra, and he was an Infante of Portugal as the fourth son of King Sancho I of Portugal and Dulce of Aragon
1276 James I of Aragon King of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca, Count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the House of Aragón on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia
1304 Andrey of Gorodets a Russian prince, son of Alexander Nevsky, who received from his father the town of Gorodets on the Volga. In 1276, he added Kostroma to his possessions and joined the struggle for Grand Duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal
1320 Heinrich von Plötzke an officer of the Teutonic Order during the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Born in Płock in the independent Duchy of Masovia, , he was a descendant of the hereditary dukes of Plock but never took the formal title due to the conflict of his family with the ruling Piast dynasty of Poland
1382 Joanna I of Naples Queen of Naples and Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1343 until her death. She also reigned as Princess of Achaea and claimed the crowns of Jerusalem and Sicily
1469 William Herbert 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1469) the son of William ap Thomas, founder of Raglan Castle, and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England.
1510 Giovanni Sforza an Italian condottiero, lord of Pesaro and Gradara from 1483 until his death. He is best known as the first husband of Lucrezia Borgia. Their marriage was annulled on claims of his impotence in March 1497
1626 Louis V Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626.
1656 Salomo Glassius a German theologian and biblical critic born at Sondershausen, in the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.
1660 Giovanni Battista Vanni an Italian painter and engraver of the Baroque period.
1675 Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne Vicomte de Turenne the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family. He achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. He was one of six marshals who have been made Marshal General of France
1676 François Hédelin abbé d'Aubignac a French author and cleric.
1679 Cornelis van der Lijn Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1646 until 1650.
1697 Dominik Mikołaj Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble and politician.
1759 Pierre Louis Maupertuis a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters. He became the Director of the Académie des Sciences, and the first President of the Prussian Academy of Science, at the invitation of Frederick the Great
1762 Edmé Bouchardon a French sculptor who was esteemed as the greatest sculptor of his time and valued as a painter and draughtsman as well.
1770 Robert Dinwiddie a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia from 1751 to 1758, first under Governor Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, and then, from July 1756 to January 1758, as deputy for John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun. Since the governors at that time were largely absentee, he was the de facto head of the colony for much of the time
1777 William Hayes (composer) an English composer, organist, singer and conductor.
1783 Johann Kirnberger a musician, composer , and music theorist. Possibly, though not verified, he was a pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach, visiting Leipzig in 1741. According to Ingeborg Allihn, Kirberger played a significant role in the intellectual and cultural exchange between Germany and Poland in the mid-1700s. Between 1741 and 1751 Kirnberger lived and worked in Poland for powerful magnates including Lubomirski, Poninski, and Rzewuski before ending up at the Benedictine Cloister in Lvov. He spent much time collecting Polish national dances and compiled them in his treatise Die Charaktere der Taenze. He became a violinist at the court of Frederick II of Prussia in 1751. He was the music director to the Prussian Princess Anna Amalia from 1758 until his death. Kirnberger greatly admired J.S. Bach, and sought to secure the publication of all of Bach's chorale settings, which finally appeared after Kirnberger's death; see Kirnberger chorale preludes. Many of Bach's manuscripts have been preserved in Kirnberger's library
1810 Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper a German entomologist. Born in Wunsiedel in Bavaria, he was professor of zoology at Erlangen university
1812 Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony a German prince from the House of Wettin and the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1768 until 1803, the Prince-Bishop of Freising from 1763 until 1768, the Prince-Bishop of Regensburg from 1763 until 1769, and the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg from 1768 until 1812.
1816 Olof Tempelman a Swedish architect and, from 1779, professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. He was appointed royal architect in 1799
1817 Gerasim Lebedev a Russian adventurer, linguist, pioneer of Bengali theatre , translator, musician and writer. He was a pioneer of Indology
1828 Radama I the first Malagasy sovereign to be recognized as King of Madagascar by a European state. He came to power at the age of 17 following the death of his father, King Andrianampoinimerina. Under Radama's rule and at his invitation, the first Europeans entered his central highland Kingdom of Imerina and its capital at Antananarivo. Radama encouraged these London Missionary Society envoys to establish schools to teach tradecraft and literacy to nobles and potential military and civil service recruits; they also introduced Christianity and taught literacy using the translated Bible. A wide range of political and social reforms were enacted under his rule, including an end to the international slave trade, which had historically been a key source of wealth and armaments for the Merina monarchy. Through aggressive military campaigns he successfully united two-thirds of the island under his rule. Abuse of alcohol weakened his health and he died prematurely at age 32. He was succeeded by his highest-ranking wife, Ranavalona I
1828 Johann Christoph Wendland a German botanist and gardener born in Petit-Landau, Alsace.
1833 William Bainbridge a Commodore in the United States Navy. During his long career in the young American Navy he served under six presidents beginning with John Adams and is notable for his many victories at sea. He commanded several famous naval ships, including the USS Constitution and saw service in the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812. Bainbridge was also in command of the USS Philadelphia when it grounded off the shores of Tripoli in North Africa, resulting in his capture and imprisonment for many months. In the latter part of his career he became the U.S. Naval Commissioner
1834 Henry Bathurst 3rd Earl Bathurst a British politician.
1835 Gilbert Thomas Burnett a British botanist.
1841 Mikhail Lermontov Yuryevich Lermontov , a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", became the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837. Lermontov is considered the supreme poet of Russian literature alongside Pushkin and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism. His influence on later Russian literature is still felt in modern times, not only through his poetry, but also through his prose, which founded the tradition of the Russian psychological novel
1844 René Charles Guilbert de Pixérécourt a French theatre director and playwright, active at the Théâtre de la Gaîté and best known for his modern melodramas such as The Dog of Montarges, the performance of which at Weimar roused the indignation of Goethe.
1844 John Dalton an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness
1847 Valerian Maykov a Russian Empire author and literary critic, son of painter Nikolay Maykov, brother of poet Apollon and novelist Vladimir Maykovs. Valerian Maykov, once a Petrashevsky Circle associate, was considered by contemporaries as heir to Belinsky's position of Russia's leading critic, and later credited for being arguably the first in Russia to introduce scientific approach to the art of literary criticism
1849 Charlotte von Ahlefeld a German novelist.
1853 Tokugawa Ieyoshi the 12th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
1863 Prince Frederick of Prussia (1794–1863) a Prussian prince, general of the royal cavalry, and division commander.
1863 William Lowndes Yancey a journalist, politician, orator, diplomat and an American leader of the Southern secession movement. A member of the group known as the Fire-Eaters, Yancey was one of the most effective agitators for secession and rhetorical defenders of slavery. An early critic of John Calhoun and nullification, by the late 1830s Yancey began to identify with Calhoun and the struggle against the forces of the anti-slavery movement. In 1849, Yancey was a firm supporter of Calhoun's "Southern Address" and an adamant opponent of the Compromise of 1850
1864 John Putnam Chapin served as Mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the Whig Party.
1865 Alphonse Henri d'Hautpoul Prime Minister of France from 31 October 1849 to 10 April 1851 during the French Second Republic.
1867 Antonio José Martínez a New Mexican priest, educator, publisher, rancher, farmer, community leader, and politician. He lived through and influenced three distinct periods of New Mexico's history: the Spanish period, the Mexican period, and the American occupation and subsequent territorial period. Martínez appears as a character in Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop
1873 Fyodor Tyutchev generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov.
1875 Aleksander Kunileid an Estonian composer. He is one of the founding figures of Estonian choral music
1876 Albertus van Raalte a 19th-century Dutch Reformed clergyman. Van Raalte was first ordained in the Secession Church in 1836, before moving to the United States, and was eventually ordained in the Reformed Church in America. When he visited the lower peninsula of Michigan, he found the area to be what he believed to be ideal for farming, the occupation of many in the Netherlands who were being burdened by high taxes and very little land, so little that farmers could no longer divide their land between their sons as an inheritance. van Raalte sent home a handbill with such glowing descriptions of the area that many farmers' sons emigrated, cleared the heavily wooded land and found the farming to be fruitful. van Raalte himself was the spiritual leader for the Protestant, Reformed, Dutch immigrants who founded the city of Holland, Michigan in 1846 and played an important role in establishing the school that would become Hope College
1881 Hewett Watson a phrenologist, botanist and evolutionary theorist. He was born in Firbeck, near Rotherham, Yorkshire, and died at Thames Ditton, Surrey
1881 Johann Christian Lobe a German composer and music theorist.