July 27 events in history

1054 Siward, Earl of Northumbria invades Scotland and defeats Macbeth, King of Scotland somewhere north of the Firth of Forth
1189 Friedrich Barbarossa arrives at Niš, the capital of Serbian King Stefan Nemanja, during the Third Crusade
1202 Georgian-Seljuk wars: At the Battle of Basian the Kingdom of Georgia defeats the Sultanate of Rum
1214 Battle of Bouvines: Philip II of France decisively defeats Imperial, English and Flemish armies, effectively ending John of England's Angevin Empire
1299 According to Edward Gibbon, Osman I invades the territory of Nicomedia for the first time, usually considered to be the founding day of the Ottoman state
1302 Battle of Bapheus: Decisive Ottoman victory over the Byzantines opening up Bithynia for Turkish conquest
1549 The Jesuit priest Francis Xavier's ship reaches Japan
1663 The English Parliament passes the second Navigation Act requiring that all goods bound for the American colonies have to be sent in English ships from English ports
1689 Glorious Revolution: The Battle of Killiecrankie ends
1694 A Royal charter is granted to the Bank of England
1720 The Battle of Grengam marks the second important victory of the Russian Navy
1778 American Revolution: First Battle of Ushant – British and French fleets fight to a standoff
1789 The first U.S. federal government agency, the Department of Foreign Affairs, is established (it will be later renamed Department of State)
1794 French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre is arrested after encouraging the execution of more than 17,000 "enemies of the Revolution"
1862 Sailing from San Francisco, California to Panama City, Panama, the SS Golden Gate catches fire and sinks off Manzanillo, Mexico, killing 231
1865 Welsh settlers arrive at Chubut in Argentina
1866 The first permanent transatlantic telegraph cable is successfully completed, stretching from Valentia Island, Ireland, to Heart's Content, Newfoundland
1880 Second Anglo-Afghan War: Battle of Maiwand – Afghan forces led by Mohammad Ayub Khan defeat the British Army in battle near Maiwand, Afghanistan
1890 Vincent van Gogh shoots himself and dies two days later
1900 Kaiser Wilhelm II makes a speech comparing Germans to Huns; for years afterwards, "Hun" would be a disparaging name for Germans
1914 Felix Manalo registers the Iglesia ni Cristo with the Philippine government
1917 The Allies reach the Yser Canal at the Battle of Passchendaele
1919 The Chicago Race Riot erupts after a racial incident occurred on a South Side beach, leading to 38 fatalities and 537 injuries over a five-day period
1921 Researchers at the University of Toronto led by biochemist Frederick Banting prove that the hormone insulin regulates blood sugar
1928 Tich Freeman becomes the only bowler ever to take 200 first-class wickets before the end of July
1929 The Geneva Convention of 1929, dealing with treatment of prisoners-of-war, is signed by 53 nations
1940 The animated short A Wild Hare is released, introducing the character of Bugs Bunny
1941 Japanese troops occupy French Indochina
1942 World War II: Allied forces successfully halt the final Axis advance into Egypt
1949 Initial flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner
1953 Fighting in the Korean War ends when the United States, China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea, refuses to sign but pledges to observe the armistice
1955 The Allied occupation of Austria stemming from World War II, ends
1964 Vietnam War: Five thousand more American military advisers are sent to South Vietnam bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000
1974 Watergate scandal: The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee votes 27 to 11 to recommend the first article of impeachment (for obstruction of justice) against President Richard Nixon
1976 Former Japanese prime minister Kakuei Tanaka is arrested on suspicion of violating foreign exchange and foreign trade laws in connection with the Lockheed bribery scandals
1981 British television: On Coronation Street, Ken Barlow marries Deirdre Langton, which proves to be a national event scoring massive viewer numbers for the show
1981 Adam Walsh, 6-year-old son of John Walsh, is kidnapped in Hollywood, Florida and is found murdered two weeks later
1983 Black July: Eighteen Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo are massacred by Sinhalese prisoners, the second such massacre in two days
1987 RMS Titanic Inc. begins the first expedited salvage of wreckage of the RMS Titanic
1990 The Supreme Soviet of the Belarusian Soviet Republic declares independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union. Until 1996 the day is celebrated as the Independence Day of Belarus; after a referendum held that year the celebration of independence is moved to June 3
1990 The Jamaat al Muslimeen attempt a coup d'état in Trinidad and Tobago, occupying the Trinidad and the studios of Trinidad and Tobago Television, holding Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson and most of his Cabinet as well as the staff at the television station hostage for six days
1995 The Korean War Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C
1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing: In Atlanta, United States, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics. One woman (Alice Hawthorne) is killed, and a cameraman suffers a heart attack fleeing the scene. One hundred eleven are injured
1999 Tony Hawk lands the first 900 on a skateboard (two-and-a-half complete revolutions) at the fifth annual X Games in San Francisco, California
2005 STS-114: NASA grounds the Space Shuttle, pending an investigation of the continuing problem with the shedding of foam insulation from the external fuel tank. During ascent, the external tank of the Space Shuttle Discovery sheds a piece of foam slightly smaller than the piece that caused the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster; this foam does not strike the spacecraft
2006 The Federal Republic of Germany is deemed guilty in the loss of Bashkirian 2937 and DHL Flight 611, because it is illegal to outsource flight surveillance
2012 The opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics take place at the Olympic Stadium in London