Died on July 28

450 Theodosius II Eastern Roman Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He also presided over the outbreak of two great christological controversies, Nestorianism and Eutychianism
938 Thankmar the eldest son of Henry I of Germany by his first wife, Hatheburg. His mother had been previously married and widowed, after which she entered a convent. Because she left the convent to marry Henry, her second marriage was considered invalid and the couple split. Thankmar's legitimacy was, therefore, in question
1032 Constance of Arles the third wife and queen consort of King Robert II of France.
1057 Pope Victor II Pope from 13 April 1055 to his death in 1057. He was one of a series of German reform popes
1128 William Clito the fourteenth Count of Flanders and titular Duke of Normandy. His surname "Clito" was a Latin term equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon "Aetheling", and the Germanic "Adelinus". Both "Clito" and "Atheling" signified "man of royal blood", or the modern equivalent, "prince"
1230 Leopold VI Duke of Austria the Duke of Styria from 1194 and the Duke of Austria from 1198 to his death in 1230. He was a member of the House of Babenberg
1458 John II of Cyprus the King of Cyprus and Armenia and also titular King of Jerusalem from 1432 to 1458. He was previously a Titular Prince of Antioch. In May, 1435/1440 he married Aimee or Amadea Palaiologina of Monferrato , Queen of Cyprus, Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia, daughter of John Jacob, Marquess of Montferrat, without issue. His second wife, a distant relative of his first one, married in Nicosia, 1441 or February 3, 1442 was Helena Palaiologina , only child and daughter of Theodore II Palaeologus, Despot of Morea and his wife Cleofa Malatesta. Theodore was a son of Eastern Roman Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus and Helena Dragaš and the brother of the last two Eastern Roman Emperor, John VIII Palaeologus and Constantine XI Palaeologus. By his second marriage he had two daughters:
1527 Rodrigo de Bastidas a Spanish conquistador and explorer who mapped the northern coast of South America, discovered Panama, and founded the city of Santa Marta.
1540 Thomas Cromwell an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
1614 Felix Plater a Swiss physician, professor in Basel, well known for his classification of psychiatric diseases, and was also the first to describe an intracranial tumour. He was born and died in Basel
1631 Guillén de Castro y Bellvis a Spanish dramatist of the Spanish Golden Age.
1635 Richard Corbet an English bishop in the Church of England. He was also a poet of the metaphysical school who, although highly praised in his own lifetime, is relatively obscure today
1655 Cyrano de Bergerac a French dramatist and duelist. In fictional works about his life he is featured with an overly large nose, which people would travel from miles around to see. Portraits suggest that he did have a big nose, though not nearly as large as described in works about him. Cyrano's work furnished models and ideas for subsequent writers
1667 Abraham Cowley an English poet born in the City of London late in 1618. He was one of the leading English poets of the 17th century, with 14 printings of his Works published between 1668 and 1721
1675 Bulstrode Whitelocke an English lawyer, writer, parliamentarian and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England.
1682 Dymitr Jerzy Wiśniowiecki a Polish magnate and szlachcic. Great Guard of the Crown from 1658, Field Hetman of the Crown from 1668, Great Crown Hetman from 1676, voivode of Belz 1660–1678 and Kraków 1678–1681, and castellan of Kraków from 1681. He was starost of Biala Cerkiew, Krzemieniec, Solec, Kamionka Strumilowa, Braha and Luboml
1685 Henry Bennet 1st Earl of Arlington an English statesman.
1696 Charles Colbert marquis de Croissy a French statesman and diplomat.
1718 Étienne Baluze a French scholar, also known as Stephanus Baluzius.
1738 Heinrich Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
1741 Antonio Vivaldi an Italian Baroque composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric. Born in Venice, he was recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe. He is known mainly for composing many instrumental concertos, for the violin and a variety of other instruments, as well as sacred choral works and more than forty operas. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons
1746 John Peter Zenger a German American printer, publisher, editor, and journalist in New York City. Zenger printed The New York Weekly Journal. He was a defendant in a landmark legal case in American jurisprudence, known as The Zenger Trial. His lawyers, Andrew Hamilton and William Smith, Sr., successfully argued that truth is a defense against charges of libel
1750 Johann Sebastian Bach a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He enriched established German styles through his skill in counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and the adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor, two Passions, and hundreds of cantatas. His music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth
1762 George Dodington 1st Baron Melcombe an English politician and nobleman.
1794 Augustin Robespierre the younger brother of French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.
1794 Maximilien de Robespierre a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential of the radical Jacobin faction of the French Revolution that was responsible for the Reign of Terror in 1794.
1794 Georges Couthon a French politician and lawyer known for his service as a deputy on the Legislative Assembly during the French Revolution. Couthon was elected to the Committee of Public Safety on 30 May 1793, serving with his friends and close associates Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just during the Reign of Terror until his death in 1794. Couthon played an important role in the development of the Law of 22 Prairial, which was responsible for sharply increasing the rate at which accused counter-revolutionaries were executed
1794 François Hanriot a French leader and street orator of the Revolution. He played a vital role in the Insurrection and subsequently the fall of the Girondins
1794 Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas a French revolutionary.
1794 Louis Antoine de Saint-Just a military and political leader during the French Revolution. The youngest of the deputies elected to the National Convention in 1792, Saint-Just rose quickly in their ranks and became a major leader of the government of the French First Republic. He spearheaded the movement to execute King Louis XVI and later drafted the radical French Constitution of 1793
1802 Giuseppe Sarti an Italian opera composer.
1807 Louis Paul Abeille a French economist.
1808 Selim III the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807. The Janissaries eventually deposed and imprisoned him, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne as Mustafa Selim was killed by a group of assassins subsequently after a Janissary revolt
1809 Richard Beckett (cricketer) an English amateur cricketer and a captain in the Coldstream Guards during the Napoleonic Wars.
1818 Gaspard Monge a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry , and the father of differential geometry. During the French Revolution he served as the Minister of the Marine, and was involved in the reform of the French educational system, helping to found the École Polytechnique
1818 Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume a French Navy officer and Vice-admiral.
1835 Édouard Mortier duc de Trévise a French general and Marshal of France under Napoleon I.
1836 Nathan Mayer Rothschild a London-based Ashkenazi Jewish banker and financier and one of five sons of the second-generation of the Rothschild banking dynasty. He was born in Frankfurt am Main, the fourth child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Gutle Schnapper
1837 Joseph Schubert (composer) a German composer, violinist, and violist.
1838 Bernhard Crusell a Swedish-Finnish clarinetist, composer and translator, "the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composer and indeed, — the outstanding Finnish composer before Sibelius".
1839 Alexander Voeykov a Russian poet, translator, literary historian and journalist, best known for his satirical poems of 1814-1820.
1839 François-Régis de La Bourdonnaye a French national deputy from 1815 to 1830. He sat on the extreme right, and was known for his violent attacks on the governments of the Bourbon Restoration. In 1829 he was briefly Minister of the Interior. In 1830 he was made a peer of France a few months before the July Revolution ended his political career
1840 Heinrich Klee a German theologian and Biblical exegete who argued against liberal and Rationalist currents in Catholic thought.
1840 John Lambton 1st Earl of Durham a British Whig statesman, colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America.
1842 Clemens Brentano a German poet and novelist, and a major figure of German Romanticism.
1844 Joseph Bonaparte the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily , and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers
1846 George Murray (British Army officer) a Scottish soldier and politician.
1847 Jan Nepomucen Głowacki a Polish realist painter of the Romantic era, regarded as the most outstanding landscape painter of the early 19th century in Poland under the foreign partitions. Głowacki studied painting at the Kraków School of Fine Arts and later at the academies of Prague and Vienna, as well as Rome and Munich. He returned to Kraków in 1828, and became a teacher of painting and drawing. From 1842 he served as a professor in the Faculty of Landscape Painting at the School of Fine Arts. His work can be found at the National Museum of Poland and its branches. Some of his work was looted by Nazi Germany in World War II and has never been recovered
1849 Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor a Marshal of France.
1849 Charles Albert of Sardinia the King of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. His name is bound up with the first "Italian statute" and the First Italian War of Independence. He abdicated after his forces were defeated by the Imperial Austrian army at the Battle of Novara , and died in exile soon thereafter