July 28 events in history

1364 Troops of the Republic of Pisa and the Republic of Florence clash in the Battle of Cascina
1540 Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of treason. Henry marries his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, on the same day
1571 La Laguna encomienda, known today as the Laguna province in the Philippines is founded by the Spaniards as one of the oldest encomienda/province in the country
1794 French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just are executed by guillotine in Paris, France
1808 Mahmud II became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam
1809 Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera – Sir Arthur Wellesley's British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a French force led by Joseph Bonaparte
1821 José de San Martín declares the independence of Peru from Spain
1854 USS Constellation (1854), the last all-sail warship built by the United States Navy, is commissioned
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Ezra Church – Confederate troops make a third unsuccessful attempt to drive Union forces from Atlanta, Georgia
1866 At the age of 18, Vinnie Ream becomes the first and youngest female artist to receive a commission from the United States government for a statue (of Abraham Lincoln)
1868 The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is certified, establishing African American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law
1896 The city of Miami, Florida is incorporated
1914 World War I: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after Serbia rejects the conditions of an ultimatum sent by Austria on July 23 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
1932 U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the United States Army to forcibly evict the "Bonus Army" of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C
1933 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Spain are established
1935 First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
1938 Hawaii Clipper disappears between Guam and Manila as the first loss of an airliner in trans-Pacific China Clipper service
1942 World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin issues Order No. 227 in response to alarming German advances into the Soviet Union. Under the order all those who retreat or otherwise leave their positions without orders to do so are to be tried in a military court, with punishments including duty in a penal battalion, imprisonment in a gulag, or execution
1943 World War II: Operation Gomorrah – The Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg, Germany causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians
1945 A U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26
1948 The Metropolitan Police Flying Squad foils a bullion robbery in the "Battle of London Airport"
1955 The Union Mundial pro Interlingua is founded at the first Interlingua congress in Tours, France
1957 Heavy rain and a mudslide in Isahaya, western Kyushu, Japan, kills 992
1965 Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000
1973 Summer Jam at Watkins Glen: Nearly 600,000 people attend a rock festival at the Watkins Glen International Raceway
1974 Spetsgruppa A, Russia's elite special force, was formed
1976 The Tangshan earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 moment magnitude flattens Tangshan in the People's Republic of China, killing 242,769 and injuring 164,851
1993 Andorra joins the United Nations
1996 The remains of a prehistoric man are discovered near Kennewick, Washington. Such remains will be known as the Kennewick Man
2001 Australian Ian Thorpe becomes the first swimmer to win six gold medals at a single World Championships
2005 The Provisional Irish Republican Army calls an end to its thirty year long armed campaign in Northern Ireland
2008 The historic Grand Pier in Weston-super-Mare burns down for the second time in 80 years