Born on July 29

869 Muhammad al-Mahdi believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world. Twelver Shī‘a believe that al-Mahdī was born in 869 and assumed Imamate at 5 years of age following the death of his father Hasan al-Askari. In the early years of his Imamate he would only contact his followers through The Four Deputies. After a 72-year period, known as Minor Occultation, a few days before the death of his fourth deputy Abul Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samarri in 941, he is believed to have sent his followers a letter. In that letter that was transmitted by al-Samarri he declared the beginning of Major Occultation during which Mahdi is not in contact with his followers
1166 Henry II Count of Champagne count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and King of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197, although he never used the title of king.
1356 Martin of Aragon King of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica and Count of Barcelona from 1396 and King of Sicily from 1409. He failed to secure the accession of his grandson, Frederic, Count of Luna, and with him the rule of the House of Barcelona came to an end
1605 Simon Dach a Prussian German lyrical poet and writer of hymns, born in Memel in the Duchy of Prussia.
1609 Maria Gonzaga Duchess of Montferrat an Italian princess of the House of Gonzaga: she was Regent in Mantua during the minority of her son from 1637 until 1647, and reigning sovereign duchess of Montferrat from 1612 until 1660.
1643 Henri Jules Prince of Condé prince de Condé, from 1686 to his death. At the end of his life he suffered from clinical lycanthropy and was considered insane
1646 Johann Theile a German composer of the Baroque era, famous for the opera Adam und Eva, Der erschaffene, gefallene und aufgerichtete Mensch, first performed in Hamburg on 2 January 1678.
1647 Carl Piper a Swedish statesman. He entered the foreign office after completing his academical course at Uppsala, accompanied Benedict Oxenstjerna on his embassage to Russia in 1673, and attracted the attention of Charles XI during the Scanian War by his extraordinary energy and ability
1677 John Augustus Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
1744 Paweł Skórzewski Polish Brigadier General of the Duchy of Warsaw, a member of the Bar Confederation, a delegate to the Polish Sejm, senator of the Kingdom of Poland and wojewoda of Kalisz.
1744 Giulio Maria della Somaglia an Italian cardinal. He was — at least in his later life — a staunch zelante cardinal who, as Secretary of State under Pope Leo XII, helped enforce an authoritarian regime in the crumbling Papal States
1763 Philip Charles Durham a Royal Navy officer whose service in the American War of Independence, French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars was lengthy, distinguished and at times controversial.
1765 Jean-Baptiste Drouet Comte d'Erlon a marshal of France and a soldier in Napoleon's Army. D'Erlon notably commanded the I Corps of the Armée du Nord at the battle of Waterloo
1769 Louis-Benoît Picard a French playwright actor, novelist, poet and music director.
1772 Domenico Viviani an Italian botanist and naturalist.
1790 Sunjo of Joseon the 23rd king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was born with the title of His Royal Highness Prince Yi Gong. Sunjo was the 2nd son of King Jeongjo which King Jeongjo had with Lady Subin, one of King Jeongjo concubines
1792 Peter von Hess a German painter, known for historic paintings, especially of the Napoleonic Wars and the Greek War of Independence.
1793 Ján Kollár a Slovak writer , archaeologist, scientist, politician, and main ideologist of Pan-Slavism.
1794 Thomas Corwin a politician from the state of Ohio who served as a prosecuting attorney, a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. Corwin was the 15th Governor of Ohio, 20th Secretary of the Treasury and United States Ambassador to Mexico
1796 Walter Hunt an American mechanic. He was born in Martinsburg, New York. Through the course of his work he became renowned for being a prolific inventor, notably of the lockstitch sewing machine , safety pin , a forerunner of the Winchester repeating rifle, a successful flax spinner, knife sharpener, streetcar bell, hard-coal-burning stove, artificial stone, street sweeping machinery, the velocipede, and the ice plough
1797 Daniel Drew an American businessman, steamship and railroad developer, and financier. Summarizing his life, Henry Clews wrote: "Of all the great operators of Wall Street... Daniel Drew furnishes the most remarkable instance of immense and long-continued success, followed by utter failure and hopeless bankruptcy"
1798 Carl Blechen a German landscape painter and a Professor at the Academy of Arts, Berlin. His distinctive style was characteristic of the Romantic ideals of natural beauty
1801 George Bradshaw an English cartographer, printer and publisher. He is best known for developing the most successful and longest published series of combined railway timetables
1805 Alexis de Tocqueville a French political thinker and historian best known for his works Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution. In both of these, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals, as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States, and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science
1805 Hiram Powers an American neoclassical sculptor.
1806 Horace Abbott an American iron manufacturer and banker. His work included the armor plating for the USS Monitor, USS Agamenticus, USS Roanoke, and the USS Monadnock
1817 Ivan Aivazovsky a Russian Romantic painter. He is considered one of the greatest marine artists in history. Baptized as Hovhannes Aivazian, Aivazovsky was born into an Armenian family in the Black Sea port of Feodosia and was mostly based in his native Crimea
1817 Martin Körber a Baltic German pastor, composer, writer and choir leader.
1817 Alfred Józef Potocki a Polish nobleman , landowner, and a liberal-conservative monarchist Austrian politician and Prime Minister.
1817 Wilhelm Griesinger a German neurologist and psychiatrist born in Stuttgart.
1818 Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria the second son of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen and Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, and the maternal grandfather of King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
1819 Theodor Brorsen a Danish astronomer best known for his discovery of five comets, including the lost periodic comet 5D/Brorsen and the periodic comet 23P/Brorsen-Metcalf.
1832 Luigi Palma di Cesnola born in Rivarolo Canavese, near Turin. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the American Civil War. He was United States consul at Larnaca in Cyprus and first Director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York
1836 Wilhelm Kress an aviation pioneer and an early aircraft designer.
1841 Gerhard Armauer Hansen a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.
1841 Henri Fayol often called Fayolism. He and his colleagues developed this theory independently of scientific management but roughly contemporaneously. Like his contemporary, Frederick Winslow Taylor, he is widely acknowledged as a founder of modern management methods
1843 Johannes Schmidt (linguist) a German linguist. He developed the Wellentheorie of language development
1846 Sophie Menter a German pianist and composer who became the favorite female student of Franz Liszt. She was called l'incarnation de Liszt in Paris because of her robust, electrifying playing style and was considered one of the greatest piano virtuosos of her time. She died at Stockdorf, near Munich
1846 Isabel Princess Imperial of Brazil the heiress presumptive to the throne of the Empire of Brazil, bearing the title of Princess Imperial. She also served as the Empire's regent on three occasions
1849 Max Nordau a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic.
1854 Georg Kerschensteiner a German professor and educational theorist. He was director of public schools in Munich from 1895 to 1919 and became a professor at the University of Munich in 1920. The author of Theorie der Bildungsorganisation , Kerschensteiner is primarily known for developing a pragmatic approach to education that included the integration of academic study with physical activity and the establishment of a network of vocational schools
1858 Liverij Osipovich Darkshevich a Russian neurologist who was a native of Yaroslavl. His surname is sometimes spelled Darkschewitsch in medical literature
1860 Charles Cochrane-Baillie 2nd Baron Lamington a British politician and colonial administrator who was Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1901, and Governor of Bombay from 1903 to 1907.
1860 René Schützenberger a French painter.
1860 Vittorio Bottego an Italian army officer and one of the first Western explorers of Jubaland in the Horn of Africa , where he led two expeditions. Bottego was born in Parma. He was an Artillery captain in the Italian Army
1861 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt an American socialite. She was the first wife of President Theodore Roosevelt. They had one child, Alice Lee Roosevelt
1865 Andrey Sheptytsky the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1901 until his death in 1944. His tenure spanned two world wars and seven political regimes: Austrian, Russian, Soviet, Polish, Soviet, General Government , and again Soviet
1869 Booth Tarkington an American novelist and dramatist best known for his novels The Magnificent Ambersons and Alice Adams. He is, with William Faulkner and John Updike, one of only three novelists to win the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction more than once
1870 George Dixon (boxer) a Black Canadian professional boxer and the first black world boxing champion in any weight class, while also being the first ever Canadian-born boxing champion. Ring Magazine founder Nat Fleischer ranked Dixon as the #1 Featherweight of all-time. Dixon was inducted into the Ring Magazine Hall of Fame in 1956 and the International Boxing Hall of Fame as a first-class inductee in 1990, he was also made a member of Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1955
1872 Eric Alfred Knudsen an American author, folklorist, lawyer and politician. He is most known for his writings and collections of short stories of and about Hawaiian folklore and culture