Died on July 29

238 Pupienus Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, and thus knowledge of the emperor is limited. In most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred by his agnomen "Maximus" rather than by his cognomen Pupienus
238 Balbinus Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
796 Offa of Mercia King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796. The son of Thingfrith and a descendant of Eowa, Offa came to the throne after a period of civil war following the assassination of Æthelbald. Offa defeated the other claimant, Beornred. In the early years of Offa's reign, it is likely that he consolidated his control of midland peoples such as the Hwicce and the Magonsæte. Taking advantage of instability in the kingdom of Kent to establish himself as overlord, Offa also controlled Sussex by 771, though his authority did not remain unchallenged in either territory. In the 780s he extended Mercian Supremacy over most of southern England, allying with Beorhtric of Wessex, who married Offa's daughter Eadburh, and regained complete control of the southeast. He also became the overlord of East Anglia and had King Æthelberht II of East Anglia beheaded in 794, perhaps for rebelling against him
1030 Olaf II of Norway King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae and canonised in Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site
1095 Ladislaus I of Hungary King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091. He was the second son of King Béla I of Hungary who died in 1063. He and his elder brother, Géza concluded a treaty with their cousin, Solomon: they acknowledged Solomon's reign in exchange for receiving their father's former duchy which included one third of the Kingdom of Hungary. Ladislaus was an influential advisor of his brother who was proclaimed king against their cousin in 1074
1099 Pope Urban II Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099. He is best known for initiating the First Crusade and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church
1108 Philip I of France King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin and Bourges
1162 Guigues V of Albon the Count of Albon and Grenoble from 1142 until his death. He was the first to take the title Dauphin du Viennois
1189 Maud of Gloucester Countess of Chester an Anglo-Norman noblewoman and the daughter of Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England and Mabel, daughter of Robert fitz Hamon. Her husband was Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester
1236 Ingeborg of Denmark Queen of France a French queen. She was a daughter of Valdemar I of Denmark and Sofia of Minsk, and wife of Philip II of France
1328 Gerhard V of Jülich the youngest son of William IV, Count of Jülich and Richardis of Guelders, daughter of Gerard III, Count of Guelders.
1468 Wenceslaus I of Zator a Duke of Oświęcim during 1434–1445 and Duke of Zator from 1445 until his death.
1504 Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby titular King of Mann, an English nobleman and stepfather to King Henry VII of England. He was the eldest son of Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley and Joan Goushill, and through his mother a lineal descendant of King Edward I by Elizabeth Plantagenet, Countess of Hereford and the FitzAlan family of Arundel
1507 Martin Behaim a German mariner, artist, cosmographer, astronomer, philosopher, geographer and explorer in service to the King of Portugal.
1573 John Caius an English physician, and second founder of the present Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
1589 Maria of the Palatinate-Simmern a German Princess and a Swedish Princess and Duchess of Södermanland by marriage, the first spouse of the future King Charles IX of Sweden. She died before he became King, and was therefore never Queen
1600 Adolf von Schwarzenberg preserved in the arsenal of Vienna. He fought in the wars of religion, but was chiefly distinguished in the wars on the Eastern frontier against the Turks. He was killed in a mutiny of the soldiers at Papa in Hungary in 1600
1612 Jacques Bongars born at Orléans, and was brought up in the reformed faith. He obtained his early education at Marburg and Jena, and returning to France continued his studies at Orléans and Bourges. After spending some time in Rome he visited eastern Europe, and subsequently made the acquaintance of Ségur Pardaillan, a representative of Henry, king of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV of France. He entered the service of Pardaillan, and in 1587 was sent on a mission to many of the princes of northern Europe, after which he visited England to obtain help from Queen Elizabeth for Henry of Navarre. He continued to serve Henry as a diplomatist, and in 1593 became the representative of the French king at the courts of the imperial princes. Vigorously seconding the efforts of Henry to curtail the power of the house of Habsburg, he spent health and money ungrudgingly in this service, and continued his labors until the king's murder in 1610. He then returned to France, and died at Paris
1644 Pope Urban VIII Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He was the last pope to expand the papal territory by force of arms, and was a prominent patron of the arts and reformer of Church missions
1649 David Teniers the Elder born at Antwerp.
1694 Suleiman I of Persia a Safavid shah of Persia who reigned between 1666 and 1694. He was the eighth Shah of the Safavid Dynasty
1735 Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin a princess of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The third wife of King Frederick I of Prussia, she died childless having gone mad
1751 Peter Warren (Royal Navy officer) a British naval officer from Ireland who commanded the naval forces in the attack on the French fortress of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia in 1745. He later sat as MP for Westminster
1761 Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen a Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She served as regent for her son after the death of her spouse
1781 Johann Kies a German astronomer and mathematician. Born in Tübingen, Kies worked in Berlin in 1751 alongside Jérôme Lalande in order to make observations on the lunar parallax in concert with those of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope
1792 René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou a French lawyer,politician and chancellor of France, whose attempts at reform signalled the failure of enlightened despotism in France. He is best known for his effort to destroy the system of parlements, which were powerful regional courts, in 1770-74. When King Louis XV died in 1774, the parlements were restored and Maupeou lost power
1795 Adair Crawford a pioneer in the development of calorimetric methods for measuring the specific heat capacity of substances and the heat of chemical reactions. In his influential 1779 book "Experiments and Observations on Animal Heat", Crawford presented new experiments proving that respiratory gas exchange in animals is a combustion. Crawford also was involved in the discovery of the element strontium
1801 Louis Hurtaut Dancourt a French librettist, dramatist, and actor.
1813 Jean-Andoche Junot a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
1832 Amand Bazard a French socialist, the founder of a secret society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy.
1833 William Wilberforce an English politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career in 1780, eventually becoming the independent Member of Parliament for Yorkshire. In 1785, he underwent a conversion experience and became an evangelical Christian, which resulted in major changes to his lifestyle and a lifelong concern for reform. In 1787, he came into contact with Thomas Clarkson and a group of anti-slave-trade activists, including Granville Sharp, Hannah More and Charles Middleton. They persuaded Wilberforce to take on the cause of abolition, and he soon became one of the leading English abolitionists. He headed the parliamentary campaign against the British slave trade for twenty-six years until the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807
1835 Michael Thomas Sadler a British Tory Member of Parliament whose Evangelical Anglicanism and prior experience as a Poor Law administrator in Leeds led him to oppose Malthusian theories of population and their use to decry state provision for the poor. He entered the British House of Commons at the behest of the 4th Duke of Newcastle, returned by the pocket borough of Newark as an 'Ultra' opponent of Catholic emancipation, but he devoted much effort in Parliament to urging the extension of the Poor Law to Ireland. In 1832, in the last session of the unreformed House of Commons he brought forward a Bill to regulate the minimum age and maximum working hours of children in the textile industry. He chaired a Select Committee on the Bill which heard evidence from witnesses on overwork and ill-treatment of factory children. No legislation had resulted before the Reform Act passed and in the election which followed Sadler stood for Leeds but failed to be elected. Parliamentary leadership of the factory reform movement passed to Lord Ashley. Publication of the evidence gathered by Sadler's Select Committee had a considerable effect on public opinion: the effect of Sadler's Bill and Committee on the Whig government was to persuade them that new factory legislation was required but that this should be based upon evidence gathered on a sounder basis. When he died, contemporaries mentioned his work on Ireland, population, and poverty as well as his ten-hour bill, but only the latter is now remembered
1839 Gaspard de Prony a French mathematician and engineer, who worked on hydraulics. He was born at Chamelet, Beaujolais, France and died in Asnières-sur-Seine, France
1844 Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart the youngest child of six born to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his wife Constanze. He was the younger of his parents' two surviving children. He was a composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher from the late classical period whose musical style was of an early Romanticism, heavily influenced by his father's mature style
1845 François Joseph Bosio a French sculptor who achieved distinction in the first quarter of the nineteenth century with his work for Napoleon and for the restored French monarchy.
1855 Friedrich Daniel Bassermann best known for calling for a pan-German Parliament at the Frankfurt Parliament. He emphasized the value of a national self-esteem based on progress and freedom
1856 Michel Félix Dunal a French botanist. He was professor of botany in Montpellier, France. He held the chair of Medical Natural History from 1816 to 1819. The Solanaceous plant genus Dunalia is named after him
1856 Karel Havlíček Borovský a Czech writer, poet, critic, politician, journalist, and publisher. He lived and studied at the Gymnasium in Německý Brod , and his house on the main square is today the Havlíček Museum. In 1838 he moved to Prague to study philosophy at Charles University and, influenced by the revolutionary atmosphere before the 1848, decided on the objective of becoming a patriotic writer. He devoted himself to studying Czech and literature. After graduating he began studying theology because he thought the best way to serve the nation would be as a priest. He was expelled, however, after one year for "showing too little indication for spiritual ministry"
1856 Robert Schumann a German composer and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. He had been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing
1857 Thomas Jefferson Rusk an early political and military leader of the Republic of Texas, serving as its first Secretary of War as well as a general at the Battle of San Jacinto. He was later a US politician and served as a Senator from Texas from 1846 until his suicide. He served as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate in 1857
1857 Charles Lucien Bonaparte a French biologist and ornithologist. Lucien and his wife had twelve children, including Cardinal Lucien Bonaparte
1857 Thomas Dick (scientist) a Scottish church minister, science teacher and writer, known for his works on astronomy and practical philosophy, combining science and Christianity, and arguing for an harmony between the two.
1859 Auguste Mathieu Panseron a French composer and voice teacher.
1860 John Hindmarsh a naval officer and the first Governor of South Australia, from 28 December 1836 to 16 July 1838.
1860 Karl Wilhelm Ideler a German psychiatrist. He was born in Bentwisch and died in Kumlosen near Wittenberge
1860 Andreas Moustoxydis a Greek historian and philologist from Corfu.
1870 Amvrosii Metlynsky a Ukrainian poet, ethnographer, and professor, and publisher.
1875 Paschal Beverly Randolph an American medical doctor, occultist, Spiritualist, trance medium, and writer. He is notable as perhaps the first person to introduce the principles of sex magic to North America, and, according to E. Waite, establishing the earliest known Rosicrucian order in the United States
1882 Włodzimierz Wolski a Polish poet, novelist, translator, and librettist. He is best known as the author of the libretto to Stanisław Moniuszko's opera Halka
1885 Henri Milne-Edwards an eminent French zoologist.