Born on July 3

1093 Robert of Rhuddlan a Norman adventurer who became lord of much of north-east Wales and for a period lord of all North Wales.
1423 Louis XI of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father Charles VII
1442 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado the 103rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1464 through 1500
1518 Li Shizhen one of the greatest Chinese physicians, polymaths, scientists, herbalists and acupuncturists in history. His major contribution to clinical medicine was his 27-year work, which is found in his book Compendium of Materia Medica. He is also considered to be the greatest scientific naturalist of China, and was very interested in the proper classification of herb components
1530 Claude Fauchet (historian) a French historian and antiquary.
1576 Duchess Anna of Prussia the daughter of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, and Marie Eleonore of Cleves. She became the spouse of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
1589 Johann Georg Wirsung a German anatomist who was a long-time prosector in Padua.
1590 Lucrezia Orsina Vizzana an Italian singer, organist, and composer. She entered a Camaldolese convent in Bologna in 1598. She was taught by her aunt, Camilla Bombacci, who was the convent organist, and by Ottavio Vernizzi, who was the unofficial music master. Vizzana's works are influenced by stile moderno music, especially the works of Claudio Monteverdi
1632 Tylman van Gameren a Dutch-born Polish architect and engineer who, at the age of 28, settled in Poland and worked for Queen Maria Kazimiera, wife of Poland's King John III Sobieski. Tylman left behind a lifelong legacy of buildings that are regarded as gems of Polish Baroque architecture
1676 Leopold I Prince of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau from 1693 to 1747. He was also a Generalfeldmarschall in the Prussian army. Nicknamed "the Old Dessauer" , he possessed good abilities as a field commander, but was mainly remembered a talented drillmaster who modernized the Prussian infantry
1682 Margravine Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach a German princess. She was the daughter of Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach and his wife Duchess Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp. She married Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
1685 Sir Robert Rich 4th Baronet a British cavalry officer. As a junior officer he fought at the Battle of Schellenberg and at the Battle of Blenheim during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was then asked the raise a regiment to combat the threat from the Jacobite rising rising of 1715. He also served with the Pragmatic Army under the Earl of Stair at the Battle of Dettingen during the War of the Austrian Succession. As a Member of Parliament he represented three different constituencies but never attained political office
1709 Wilhelmine of Prussia Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth a princess of the German Kingdom of Prussia and composer. She was the eldest daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, and granddaughter of George I of Great Britain. In 1731, she married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. The baroque buildings and parks built during her reign shape much of the present appearance of the town of Bayreuth, Germany
1728 Robert Adam a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam , the country's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death
1738 Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Leistenau a German noble woman.
1746 Henry Grattan an Irish politician and member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century. McDowell says that he was:
1746 Sophia Magdalena of Denmark Queen of Sweden as the spouse of King Gustav III.
1767 Jean-Joseph Marquis Dessolles a French soldier and statesman. He was the prime minister of France from 29 December 1818 to 18 November 1819
1778 Carl Ludvig Engel a German architect known for his Empire style, a phase of Neoclassicism. He had a great impact on the architecture of Finland in the first part of the 19th century
1780 André Parmentier (landscape architect) the one of a generation of American landscape designers who arrived from Europe in the early years after Independence. Many of these designers, including William Russell Birch and George Isham Parkyns, also practiced landscape depiction, reinforcing the picturesque connection of landscape art as both making and representing places
1783 Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (1783–1851) the son of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.
1789 Johann Friedrich Overbeck a German painter and member of the Nazarene movement. He also made four etchings
1790 George Brown (British Army officer) a British soldier notable for commands in the Peninsular War and the Crimean War.
1790 Christian August Pohlenz a German composer and conductor.
1799 Placido Mandanici an Italian composer. He is best known for his operas. He graduated from the Music Lyceum in Palermo , and then studied at Naples with Pietro Raimondi. In 1829 his first opera, L'isola disabitata, premiered in Naples
1805 Jean-Baptiste Nothomb a Belgian statesman and diplomat, the sixth Prime Minister.
1807 Thomas Gore Browne a British colonial administrator, who was Governor of St Helena, Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Tasmania and Governor of Bermuda.
1813 Carl Johann Steinhauser a noted German sculptor in the classical style.
1814 Ferdinand Didrichsen a Danish botanist and physicist.
1818 Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler a Dutch general who commanded the Dutch-Indonesian forces during the First Aceh Expedition started on April 8, 1873. The expedition failed to reach its goals and Köhler himself was shot in a skirmish. His tombstone can still be found in a cemetery in Jakarta now known as Taman Prasasti Museum
1819 Louis Théodore Gouvy a French composer.
1821 Ferdinand Kürnberger an Austrian writer.
1823 Ahmed Vefik Pasha a Greek-Ottoman statesman, diplomat, playwright, and translator of the Tanzimat and First Constitutional periods. He was commissioned with top-rank governmental duties, including presiding over the first Ottoman parliament in 1877. He also served as Grand Vizier for two brief periods. Vefik also established the first Ottoman theatre and initiated the first Western style theatre plays in Bursa and translated Molière's major works
1826 Rudolf Westphal born at Obernkirchen in Schaumburg.
1829 Charles Brooke Rajah of Sarawak GCMG , born Charles Anthoni Johnson, ruled as the head of state of Sarawak from 3 August 1868 until his death. He succeeded his uncle, James Brooke, as the second White Rajah of this small country on the coast of Borneo
1831 Edmund Yates a British novelist and dramatist. He was born in Edinburgh to the actor and theatre manager Frederick Henry Yates and held an appointment for a period in the General Post Office as an adult. He worked as a journalist, mainly as a dramatic writer, and also wrote many dramatic pieces and some novels, including Running the Gauntlet and The Black Sheep
1840 Frans Anatolius Sjöström a Finnish architect. He was born in Turku and educated there and, in 1868, at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. In 1872 he designed the old building of the Helsinki University of Technology. He died in Rönnskär
1842 Hermann Breymann a German philologist and pedagogue.
1844 Dankmar Adler a celebrated German-born American architect.
1845 Fyodor Dubasov Admiral Fyodor Vasilyevich Dubasov was, Governor General of Moscow from November 24, 1905 to July 5, 1906.
1846 Achilles Alferaki a Russian composer and statesman of Greek descent. His brother was Sergei Alphéraky
1848 Lothar von Trotha a German military commander widely condemned for his conduct of the Herero Wars in German South-West Africa, especially for the events that led to the near-extermination of the Herero.
1849 Prosper-René Blondlot a French physicist, best remembered for his mistaken "discovery" of N rays, a phenomenon that subsequently proved to be illusory.
1850 Alfredo Keil a Portuguese romantic composer and painter.
1851 Charles Bannerman an Australian Test cricketer, a right-handed batsman, who played domestic cricket for New South Wales.
1852 Rafael Joseffy a Hungarian pianist, teacher and composer.
1854 Leoš Janáček a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher. He was inspired by Moravian and other Slavic folk music to create an original, modern musical style
1856 Henrique Lopes de Mendonça a Portuguese poet, playwright and naval officer. He wrote several plays, and with his friend, the composer Alfredo Keil, he wrote the lyrics of the future Portuguese national anthem, A Portuguesa, which was officially adopted in 1911
1860 Charlotte Perkins Gilman a prominent American feminist, sociologist, novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform. She was a utopian feminist during a time when her accomplishments were exceptional for women, and she served as a role model for future generations of feminists because of her unorthodox concepts and lifestyle. Her best remembered work today is her semi-autobiographical short story "The Yellow Wallpaper" which she wrote after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis
1862 Friedrich Koch a German composer, cellist and teacher. He was born in Berlin and studied cello with Robert Hausmann and composition with Woldemar Bargiel at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. He served as a cellist in the Royal Orchestra of Berlin between 1882 and 1891, after which he accepted a position of music director for the resort town of Baden-Baden. A year later, he returned to Berlin, where he concentrated on composing and teaching, eventually becoming a professor and director of theory at the Musikhochschule where he had studied. Kurt Weill, Pablo Sorozábal, Boris Blacher and Paul Kletzki were among his many students