Died on July 31

450 Peter Chrysologus Bishop of Ravenna from about 433 until his death.
477 Pope Timothy II of Alexandria also known as Αἴλουρος/Aelurus , succeeded twice in supplanting the Chalcedonian Patriarch of Alexandria.
1321 Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi al-Azdi, also known as Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi. [29 December 1256 – 1321, was a Moroccan mathematician, astronomer, Islamic scholar, Sufi, and a one-time astrologer
1330 Michael Shishman of Bulgaria Asen III ,a ruled as emperor of Bulgaria from 1323 to 1330. The exact year of his birth is unknown but it was between 1280 and 1292. He was the founder of the last ruling dynasty of the Second Bulgarian Empire, the Shishman dynasty. After he was crowned, however, Michael used the name Asen to emphasize his connection with the Asen dynasty, the first one to rule over the Second Empire
1358 Étienne Marcel provost of the merchants of Paris under King John II, called John the Good. He distinguished himself in the defense of the small craftsmen and guildsmen who made up most of the city population
1418 Anna Grand Duchess of Lithuania Grand Duchess of Lithuania. She probably was the first wife of Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke of Lithuania. Anna was mother of Sophia of Lithuania, the only child of Vytautas and wife of Vasily I of Moscow. She is best remembered for helping Vytautas to escape from a prison in Kreva in 1382 and thus probably saving his life. Little is known about Anna's life and even her origins remain disputed by historians
1556 Ignatius of Loyola a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by absolute obedience to the Pope
1602 Charles de Gontaut duc de Biron a French soldier whose military achievements were accompanied by plotting to dismember France and set himself up as ruler of an independent Burgundy.
1624 Henry II Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine from 1608 until his death. Leaving no sons, both of his daughters became Duchesses of Lorraine by marriage. He was a brother-in-law of Henry IV of France
1653 Thomas Dudley a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Dudley was the chief founder of Newtowne, later Cambridge, Massachusetts, and built the town's first home. He provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, and signed Harvard College's new charter during his 1650 term as governor. Dudley was a devout Puritan who was opposed to religious views not conforming with his. In this he was more rigid than other early Massachusetts leaders like John Winthrop, but less confrontational than John Endecott
1693 Willem Kalf a Dutch Golden Age painter who specialized in still lifes. Later in his life, Kalf became an art dealer and appraiser
1713 Frederick William Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Schwerin portion of the duchy of Mecklenburg from 1692 until 1713.
1726 Nicolaus II Bernoulli a.k.a. Niklaus Bernoulli, Nikolaus Bernoulli, was a Swiss mathematician as were his father Johann Bernoulli and one of his brothers, Daniel Bernoulli. He was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family
1729 Nicola Francesco Haym an Italian opera librettist, composer, theatre manager and performer, and numismatist. He is best remembered for adapting texts into libretti for the London operas of George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Bononcini. Libretti that he provided for Handel included those for Giulio Cesare, Ottone, Flavio, Tamerlano, Rodelinda, and several others; for Bononcini, he produced two, Calfurnia and Astianatte
1750 John V of Portugal a Braganza monarch that ruled as King of Portugal and the Algarves during the first half of the 18th-century. João V raised the prestige of Portugal, which had been in a long decline amongst European courts, to a new and glorious level of prosperity and wealth
1762 Luis Vicente de Velasco e Isla a Spanish sailor and commander in the Royal Spanish Navy. He is known for his valiant defense against the British expedition against Cuba in 1762, during which action he was killed
1784 Denis Diderot a French philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert
1805 Dheeran Chinnamalai a Kongu chieftain and Palayakkarar from Tamil Nadu who rose up in revolt against the British East India Company in the Kongu Nadu, Southern India. Kongunadu comprised the modern day districts of Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Tirupur, Erode, Salem, Dharmapuri, Karur, Namakkal and parts of Dindigul District and Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu state
1818 Nikolaos Skoufas a member of the Filiki Eteria , a Greek conspiratorial organization against the Ottoman Empire.
1831 Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov a Russian courtier and lover of Catherine the Great from 1778 to 1779.
1840 Nachman Krochmal a Jewish Galician philosopher, theologian, and historian.
1849 Sándor Petőfi a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet, and was one of the key figures of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He is the author of the Nemzeti dal , which is said to have inspired the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary that grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire. It is most likely that he died in the Battle of Segesvár, one of the last battles of the war
1854 Samuel Wilson purportedly the source of the personification of the United States known as "Uncle Sam".
1860 Justin de Jacobis an Italian Lazarist missionary who became Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis.
1862 Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1792–1862) a distinguished soldier, who, in 1815, after the congress of Vienna, became colonel of a regiment in the service of the king of the Netherlands. He fought at the Battle of Quatre Bras and the Battle of Waterloo where he commanded the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Dutch Division and became a Chief Commander of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army
1864 Louis Christophe François Hachette a French publisher.
1867 Benoît Fourneyron a French engineer, born in Saint-Étienne, Loire. Fourneyron made significant contributions to the development of water turbines
1874 Charles Tilstone Beke an English traveller, geographer and Biblical critic. Born in Stepney, London, the son of a merchant in the City of London, for a few years Beke engaged in mercantile pursuits. He later studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and for a time practised at the Bar, but finally devoted himself to the study of historical, geographical and ethnographical subjects
1875 Andrew Johnson the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was Vice President at the time of President Abraham Lincoln's assassination. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded. The new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives. The first American president to be impeached, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote
1878 Alessandro Franchi an Italian cardinal.
1886 Franz Liszt T.O.S.F. in modern use Liszt Ferenc ; from 1859 to 1867 officially Franz Ritter von Liszt, was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, teacher and Franciscan tertiary
1892 Matija Majar a Carinthian Slovene Roman Catholic priest and political activist, best known as the creator of the idea of a United Slovenia.
1895 Thomas Francis Wade a British diplomat and Sinologist who produced the first Chinese textbook in English in 1867 that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization system for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892.
1895 Richard Morris Hunt an American architect of the nineteenth century and a preeminent figure in the history of American architecture. Hunt was, according to design critic Paul Goldberger writing in The New York Times, "American architecture's first, and in many ways its greatest, statesman." Aside from Hunt's sculpting of the face of New York City, including designs for the facade and Great Hall of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty and many Fifth Avenue mansions lost to the wrecking ball, Hunt founded both the American Institute of Architects and the Municipal Art Society
1904 Fyodor Keller a general in the Imperial Russian Army, noted for his role in the Battle of Motien Pass during the Russo-Japanese War.
1906 Mikhail Herzenstein a Russian Jew converted to Christianity, elected for the Constitutional Democratic Party to the First State Duma of the Russian Empire, representing the city of Moscow. He was assassinated before the end of his parliamentary mandate by the Black Hundreds antisemitic terrorist group at his summer home in Terijoki in the Grand Duchy of Finland
1910 John G. Carlisle a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party during the last quarter of the 19th century. He served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, from 1883 to 1889 and afterward served as Secretary of the Treasury, from 1893 to 1897, during the Panic of 1893. As a Bourbon Democrat he was a leader of the conservative, pro-business wing of the party, along with President Grover Cleveland
1912 Allan Octavian Hume a civil servant, political reformer, ornithologist and horticulturalist in British India. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress, a political party that was later to lead in the Indian independence movement. A notable ornithologist, Hume has been called "the Father of Indian Ornithology" and, by those who found him dogmatic, "the Pope of Indian ornithology."
1913 John Milne a British geologist and mining engineer who worked on a horizontal seismograph.
1914 Jean Jaurès a French Socialist leader. Initially an Opportunist Republican, he evolved into one of the first social democrats, becoming the leader, in 1902, of the French Socialist Party, which opposed Jules Guesde's revolutionary Socialist Party of France. The two parties merged in 1905 in the French Section of the Workers' International. An antimilitarist, Jaurès was assassinated at the outbreak of World War I, and remains one of the main historical figures of the French Left
1917 Hedd Wyn a Welsh language poet who was killed during the Battle of Passchendaele in World War He was posthumously awarded the bard's chair at the 1917 National Eisteddfod. Evans, who had been awarded several chairs for his poetry, was inspired to take the bardic name Hedd Wyn from the way sunlight penetrated the mist in the Meirionydd valleys
1917 Francis Ledwidge an Irish war poet from County Meath. Sometimes known as the "poet of the blackbirds", he was killed in action at the Battle of Passchendaele during World War I
1920 Ion Dragoumis a Greek diplomat, philosopher, writer and revolutionary.
1924 Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg the youngest son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Countess Julia von Hauke.
1924 Giovanni Battista de Toni an Italian botanist, mycologist and phycologist.
1926 Bronislav Grombchevsky an ethnic Polish officer in the Imperial Russian Army and an explorer/spy, famed for his participation in the The Great Game.
1926 Friedrich Knauer (zoologist) an Austrian zoologist.
1927 Martin Segitz an acting Bavarian Minister-President and member of the SPD.
1927 Harry Johnston a British explorer, botanist, linguist and colonial administrator, one of the key players in the "Scramble for Africa" that occurred at the end of the 19th century.
1931 Çürüksulu Mahmud Pasha Tavgiridze , an Ottoman Turkish statesman and army general of ethnic Georgian background.