Born on July 4

68 Salonina Matidia the daughter and only child of Ulpia Marciana and wealthy praetor Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus. Her maternal uncle was the Roman Emperor Trajan. Trajan had no children and treated her like his daughter. Her father died in 78 and Matidia went with her mother to live with Trajan and his wife, Pompeia Plotina
673 Ecgberht of Kent a King of Kent who ruled from 664 to 673, succeeding his father Eorcenberht.
907 Luitpold Margrave of Bavaria the ancestor of the Luitpolding dynasty which ruled Bavaria and Carinthia until the mid-tenth century.
1095 Usama ibn Munqidh a medieval Muslim poet, author, faris , and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria. His life coincided with the rise of several medieval Muslim dynasties, the arrival of the First Crusade, and the establishment of the crusader states
1330 Ashikaga Yoshiakira the 2nd shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1358 to 1367 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshiakira was the son of the founder and first shogun of the Muromachi shogunate, Ashikaga Takauji. His mother was and Akahashi Tōshi, also known as and Hōjō Tōshi
1477 Johannes Aventinus the pen name of Johann Georg Turmair or Thurmayr, a Bavarian Renaissance humanist historian and philologist. He authored the 1523 Annals of Bavaria, a valuable record of the early history of Germany
1539 Louis VI Elector Palatine an Elector from the Palatinate-Simmern branch of the house of Wittelsbach. He was the first-born son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine and Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
1546 Murad III the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.
1587 Magdalene of Bavaria the daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine. In 1613 she married Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg. Their son was Philip William, Elector Palatine
1611 Gian Carlo de' Medici an Italian cardinal. He was the second son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria
1623 William Byrd an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard , and consort music. He produced sacred music for use in Anglican services, although he himself became a Roman Catholic in later life and wrote Catholic sacred music as well
1656 John Leake an English flag officer and politician during the later seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Leake, a full admiral, served in the House of Commons from 1708 to 1715
1676 José de Cañizares a Spanish playwright. Cavalry officer, public official, and author of around one hundred works, he was one of the most important dramatists of the early 18th century
1677 Pierluigi Carafa an Italian cardinal from the famous Neapolitan family of Italian nobles, clergy, and men of arts. He served the papacy as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and as Dean of same College. He is currently buried at Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome
1694 Louis-Claude Daquin a French composer of Jewish birth writing in the Baroque and Galant styles. He was a virtuoso organist and harpsichordist
1715 Christian Fürchtegott Gellert a German poet, one of the forerunners of the golden age of German literature that was ushered in by Lessing.
1744 Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin a German physician, botanist and explorer.
1751 Antoine-François-Claude Ferrand born in Paris, and became a member of the parlement of Paris at eighteen.
1753 Jean-Pierre Blanchard a French inventor, best known as a pioneer in balloon flight.
1756 Louis Marie Turreau a French general officer of the French Revolutionary Wars. He was most notable as the organisor of the colonnes infernales during the war in the Vendée, which massacred tens of thousands of Vendéens and ravaged the countryside. He attained army command, but without notable military accomplishments. Under the First French Empire, he pursued a career as a high functionary, becoming ambassador to the United States then a baron d'Empire
1758 Charles d'Abancour a French statesman, minister to Louis XVI.
1765 Pierre Dupont de l'Étang a French general of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a political figure of the Bourbon Restoration.
1767 Takizawa Bakin a late Japanese Edo period gesaku author best known for works such as Nansō Satomi Hakkenden and Chinsetsu Yumiharizuki. Both are outstanding examples of nineteenth-century yomihon, or "books for reading"
1790 Friedrich Calker educated in Jena. For a short time, he was a lecturer in Berlin. In 1818, he was called to an extraordinary professorship in the newly founded University of Bonn, becoming an ordinary professor in 1826. He substantially echoed the ideas of his teacher Jakob Fries. His two major works are Urgesetzlehre des Wahren, Guten und Schönen und Denklehre
1790 George Everest a Welsh surveyor and geographer, and the Surveyor General of India from 1830 through 1843.
1793 Friedrich Bleek a Biblical scholar.
1795 Karl Eichwald a Baltic German geologist, physician, and naturalist, who worked in Russia.
1799 Oscar I of Sweden King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. When, in August 1810, his father Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected Crown Prince of Sweden, Oscar and his mother moved from Paris to Stockholm. Oscar's father was the first ruler of the current House of Bernadotte. Oscar's mother was Désirée Clary, Napoleon Bonaparte's first fiancée. Her sister, Julie Clary, was married to Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Désirée chose Napoleon to be Oscar's godfather
1802 John L. Helm the 18th and 24th governor of the U.S. state of Kentucky, although his service in that office totaled less than fourteen months. He also represented Hardin County in both houses of the Kentucky General Assembly and was chosen to be the Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives four times. In 1838 his sole bid for federal office ended in defeat when his opponent, Willis Green, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1802 Joseph Labitzky a Bohemian composer, violinist, and conductor. He studied with Karl Veit in his youth. Labitzky joined a traveling orchestra at age 14, and in 1820 took a position in an orchestra in Marienbad. In 1823-24 he was in Munich, and following this he toured Germany as a concert violinist. He put together his own orchestra in 1825, touring Vienna and Warsaw. He took a conducting position in Karlsbad in 1835, and his dance pieces became quite popular throughout Europe, including England. He was involved in "Cocks vs Purday", a British court case concerning copyright. He was the father of August Labitzky. Labitzky composed 300 dance pieces
1803 Julius Léopold Eduard Avé-Lallemant a German botanist who was a native of Lübeck.
1804 Nathaniel Hawthorne an American novelist and short story writer.
1804 Therese von Lützow a German author.
1805 Ludwig Karl Georg Pfeiffer a German physician, botanist and conchologist.
1806 Augustus Chapman Allen along with his younger brother, John Kirby Allen, founded the City of Houston in the U.S. state of Texas. He was born on July 4, 1806, in Canaseraga Village, New York , to Sarah and Roland Allen
1807 Giuseppe Garibaldi an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland"
1816 Hiram Walker an American entrepreneur and founder of the Hiram Walker and Sons Ltd. distillery Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Walker was born in East Douglas, Massachusetts, and moved to Detroit in 1838. He purchased land across the Detroit River, just east of what is Windsor, Ontario, and established a distillery in 1858 in what would become Walkerville, Ontario. Walker began selling his whisky as Hiram Walker's Club Whisky, in containers that were "clearly marked" and he utilized a process to make his whisky that was vastly different from all other distillers. It became very popular, angering American distillers, who forced the U.S. Government to pass a law requiring that all foreign whiskeys state their country of origin on the label. From this point forward, Hiram Walker's famous Canadian Club Whisky was Canada's top export whisky. He established and maintained the company town that grew around his distillery, exercising planning and control over every facet of the town, from public works to religious services to police and fire control
1819 John Henry Gurney Sr. an English banker, amateur ornithologist, and Liberal Party politician of the Gurney family.
1822 Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume a French sculptor.
1826 Stephen Foster an American songwriter primarily known for his parlor and minstrel music. Foster wrote over 200 songs; among his best-known are "Oh! Susanna," "Camptown Races," "Old Folks at Home," "My Old Kentucky Home," "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair," "Old Black Joe," and "Beautiful Dreamer." Many of his compositions remain popular more than 150 years after he wrote them
1827 George Washington Glick the ninth Governor of Kansas.
1828 Wilhelm Ahlwardt a German orientalist who specialized in research of Arabic literature. He was the son of philologist Christian Wilhelm Ahlwardt
1828 J. Johnston Pettigrew an author, lawyer, linguist, diplomat, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He was a major leader in the disastrous Pickett's Charge and was mortally wounded a few days after the Battle of Gettysburg during the Confederate retreat to Virginia
1833 Emil Bretschneider a sinologist of Baltic German ethnicity and a correspondent member of Académie française. He operated in the Russian Empire. He graduated from the medical school of University of Dorpat in Dorpat Estonia, and was first posted as a physician by the Russian legation to Tehran. From 1866 to 1883 he was posted as physician by the Russian legation to Pekin
1837 Carolus-Duran a French painter and art instructor. He is noted for his stylish depictions of members of high society in Third Republic France
1841 William Thierry Preyer an English-born physiologist who worked in Germany.
1842 Hermann Cohen often held to be "probably the most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century".
1844 Edmonia Lewis an African American sculptor who worked for most of her career in Rome. She gained fame and recognition as a sculptor in the international fine arts world. Her work is known for incorporating themes relating to black and American Indian people into Neoclassical style sculpture. In 2002, the scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Edmonia Lewis on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans
1844 Karl Woermann a German art historian and museum director. He was born in Hamburg, studied at various universities , and traveled widely. In 1871 Woermann participated in the so-called "Holbein convention" in Dresden, at which a number of prominent art historians convened to determine which of two versions of Hans Holbein the Younger's Meyer Madonna was the original work. He was called to the academy at Düsseldorf in 1874 as professor of the history of art and literature. In 1882 he became director of the picture gallery at Dresden, of which he wrote the first scientific catalogue. To the Geschichte der Malerei, begun by Alfred Woltmann, he contributed the part on antique painting, and after Woltmann's death completed the entire work. His work unites sound scholarship with sympathetic appreciation, and displays a generous attitude towards the research of others. He wrote, besides, several series of poems. His works include:
1845 Pál Szinyei Merse a Hungarian painter and politician.