Died on July 4

712 Andrew of Crete For the martyr of 766 of the same name, see Andrew of Crete.
943 Taejo of Goryeo the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century. Taejo ruled from 918 to 943
965 Pope Benedict V Pope from 22 May to 23 June 964, in opposition to Pope Leo VIII. He was overthrown by emperor Otto His pontificate occurred at the end of a period known as the Saeculum obscurum
973 Ulrich of Augsburg Bishop of Augsburg and a leader of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany. He was the first saint to be canonized
1187 Raynald of Châtillon a knight who served in the Second Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat. Raynald was an enormously controversial character in his own lifetime and beyond; Muslim writers often took him to be the chief enemy of Islam
1205 Otto II Margrave of Brandenburg the third Margrave of Brandenburg from 1184 until his death.
1336 Elizabeth of Aragon more commonly known as Elizabeth of Portugal, T.O.S.F. was queen consort of Portugal, a tertiary of the Franciscan Order and is venerated as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
1336 Kusunoki Masashige remembered as the ideal of samurai loyalty. His origin has not been validated and it was merely six years between the start of his military campaign in 1331 and his demise in 1336. He received the highest decoration from the Meiji government of Japan in 1880
1541 Pedro de Alvarado a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of Yucatan and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. He is considered the conquistador of most of Central America. Although renowned for his skill as a soldier, Alvarado is known also for the cruelty of his treatment of native populations, and mass murders committed in the subjugation of the native peoples of Mexico. Historiography portrays that indigenous people, both Nahuatl-speakers and speakers of other languages, called him Tonatiuh, meaning "sun" in the Nahuatl language. Yet he was also called "Red Sun" in Nahuatl, which allows a variety of interpretations. Whether this epithet refers to Don Alvarado's red hair, some esoteric quality attributed to him, or both, is disputed
1546 Hayreddin Barbarossa an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born in the Ottoman island of Midilli and died in Constantinople , the Ottoman capital. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, from the Battle of Preveza in 1538 until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571
1551 Gregory Cromwell 1st Baron Cromwell an English Peer. He was the only son of the Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex by his wife Elizabeth Wyckes
1562 Johann Hommel a German astronomer and mathematician.
1572 Hasan Pasha (son of Barbarossa) the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers. His mother was a Morisco. He succeeded his father as ruler of Algiers, and replaced Barbarossa's deputy Hasan Agha who had been effectively holding the position of ruler of Algiers since 1533
1602 Anna of Mecklenburg a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Gotthard Kettler, on 11 March 1566 in Königsberg. She was the daughter of Albrecht VII, Duke of Mecklenburg and Anna of Brandenburg. Anna is the first woman in Livonia, whose life story is entirely historically confirmed
1603 Philippe de Monte a Flemish composer of the late Renaissance. He was a member of the 3rd generation madrigalists and wrote more madrigals than any other composer of the time. Sources cite him as being "the best composer in the entire country, particularly in the new manner and musica reservata." Others compare his collections of music with that of other influential composers, such as Lassus
1641 Pedro Teixeira a Portuguese explorer who became, in 1637, the first European to travel up the entire length of the Amazon River.
1648 Antoine Daniel a Jesuit missionary at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, and one of the eight Canadian Martyrs.
1667 John VI Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
1712 Johann Kasimir Kolbe von Wartenberg the first ever Minister-President of the kingdom of Prussia, and the head of the "Cabinet of Three Counts".
1714 Antonio Magliabechi an Italian librarian, scholar and bibliophile.
1742 Luigi Guido Grandi Dom Guido Grandi, O.S.B. Cam., was an Italian monk, priest, philosopher, mathematician, and engineer
1749 Joseph Van Aken a Flemish artist, a portrait, genre and drapery painter who spent most of his career in England. He was noted his skill in painting fabrics, and was employed as a costume painter by many leading artists
1754 Philippe Néricault Destouches a French playwright who wrote 22 plays.
1761 Samuel Richardson an 18th-century English writer and printer. He is best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded , Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady and The History of Sir Charles Grandison. Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, including journals and magazines
1770 Pyotr Krenitsyn a Russian explorer and Captain/Lieutenant of the Imperial Russian Navy. Following Vitus Bering's 1741 tragic venture he was the first to conduct an expedition to Alaska and the Aleutians. Krenitsyn was sent, together with Mikhail Levashev, by Russian Empress Catherine II to explore the northern parts of the Pacific Ocean and particularly the area around the Bering strait in four ships. Krenitsyn was the commander of the ship Catherine and Levashev commanded the ship Paul
1771 Michael Paknanas a Greek gardener and martyr. He was canonized as St Michael, the new martyr
1780 Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, governor and de facto sovereign of the Austrian Netherlands, and sometime duke of Lorraine.
1789 Cláudio Manuel da Costa a Brazilian poet and musician, considered to be the introducer of the Neoclassicism in Brazil. He wrote under the pen name Glauceste Satúrnio, and his most famous work is the epic poem Vila Rica, that tells the history of the homonymous city, nowadays called Ouro Preto
1793 Antoine-Marin Lemierre a French dramatist and poet.
1794 Giovanni Battista Audiffredi an Italian Dominican scholar and scientist.
1806 Charles-Henri Sanson the Royal Executioner of France during the reign of King Louis XVI and High Executioner of the First French Republic. He administered capital punishment in the city of Paris for over forty years, and by his own hand executed nearly 3,000 people, including the King himself
1812 Jan Paweł Łuszczewski a Polish politician who was an envoy to the Four-Year Sejm and later the Minister for Interior and Religious Affairs in the Duchy of Warsaw from 5 October 1807 until his death. He was also a Mason
1815 Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann a German geographer and zoologist.
1821 Richard Cosway a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse. His wife was the Italian-born painter Maria Cosway, a close friend of Thomas Jefferson
1826 Thomas Jefferson an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence , and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy, and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual with worldwide influence. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia, and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France and later the first United States Secretary of State serving under President George Washington. In opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalism, Jefferson and his close friend, James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and later resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, Jefferson opposed Adams, and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts
1826 John Adams the second president of the United States , having earlier served as the first vice president of the United States. An American Founding Father, Adams was a statesman, diplomat, and a leading advocate of American independence from Great Britain. Well educated, he was an Enlightenment political theorist who promoted republicanism, as well as a strong central government, and wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas—both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail Adams. Adams was opposed to slavery, and never owned a slave. After the Boston Massacre, with anti-British feelings in Boston at a boiling point, he provided a principled, controversial, and successful legal defense of the accused British soldiers, because he believed in the right to counsel and the "protect of innocence"
1831 James Monroe the fifth President of the United States. Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation. He was of French and Scottish descent. Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, Monroe was of the planter class and fought in the American Revolutionary War. He was wounded in the Battle of Trenton with a musket ball to his shoulder. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress. As an anti-federalist delegate to the Virginia convention that considered ratification of the United States Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification, claiming it gave too much power to the central government. He took an active part in the new government, and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress, where he joined the Jeffersonians. He gained experience as an executive as the Governor of Virginia and rose to national prominence as a diplomat in France, when he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During the War of 1812, Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison
1833 Duke Alexander of Württemberg (1771–1833) a Duke of Württemberg. The son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and of Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. His sister Sophie Dorothea married Tsar Paul I of Russia
1836 Catherine Jarrige Blessed Catherine Jarrige , known as Catinon Menette, a beatified third-order Dominican of the Catholic Church.
1840 Karl Ferdinand von Graefe a German surgeon from Warsaw. He was the father of ophthalmologist Albrecht von Graefe and grandfather of politician Albrecht von Graefe
1845 Ludwig von Wolzogen a Württembergian military officer, who served during the Napoleonic Wars.
1848 François-René de Chateaubriand a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature. Descended from an old aristocratic family from Brittany, Chateaubriand was a royalist by political disposition and in an age when a significant part of the intelligentsia was turning against the Church, authored the Génie du christianisme in defence of the Catholic faith. It is his autobiography Mémoires d'outre-tombe , however, that is nowadays generally considered his most accomplished work
1850 William Kirby (entomologist) an English entomologist, an original member of the Linnean Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society, as well as a country priest, making him an eminent parson-naturalist. He is considered the "founder of entomology"
1851 Martin-Joseph Mengal a Belgian composer and instructor.
1851 Carl Friedrich von Ledebour a German-Estonian botanist.
1854 Karl Friedrich Eichhorn a German jurist.
1855 John Alexander Greer a Texan politician, and the second Lieutenant Governor of Texas serving under Governors George Wood and Peter Bell.
1857 William L. Marcy an American statesman, who served as U.S. Senator and the 11th Governor of New York, and as the U.S. Secretary of War and U.S. Secretary of State
1869 Jean René Constant Quoy a French naval surgeon, zoologist and anatomist.
1873 Józef Michał Poniatowski a Polish szlachcic, a composer and an operatic tenor. He was the nephew of the Polish general Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski. He was created the 1st Conte di Monte Rotondo on November 20, 1847, and the first Principe di Monte Rotondo on November 19, 1850 by Grand Duke of Tuscany Lepold II