July 4 events in history

414 Emperor Theodosius II, age 13, yields power to his older sister Aelia Pulcheria, who reigned as regent and proclaimed herself empress (Augusta) of the Eastern Roman Empire
836 Pactum Sicardi, a peace treaty between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples, is signed
993 Ulrich of Augsburg is canonized as a saint
1054 A supernova is seen by Chinese, Arab and possibly Amerindian observers near the star Zeta Tauri. For several months it remains bright enough to be seen during the day. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula
1120 Jordan II of Capua is anointed as prince after his infant nephew's death
1187 The Crusades: Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem
1253 Battle of West-Capelle: John I of Avesnes defeats Guy of Dampierre
1359 Francesco II Ordelaffi of Forlì surrenders to the Papal commander Gil de Albornoz
1456 Ottoman wars in Europe: The Siege of Nándorfeqhérvár (Belgrade) begins
1534 Christian III is elected King of Denmark and Norway in the town of Rye
1610 The Battle of Klushino is fought between forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia during the Polish-Muscovite War
1634 The city of Trois-Rivières is founded in New France (now Quebec, Canada)
1744 The Treaty of Lancaster, in which the Iroquois cedes lands between the Allegheny Mountains and the Ohio River to the British colonies, was signed in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
1754 French and Indian War: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French Capt. Louis Coulon de Villiers
1774 Orangetown Resolutions are adopted in the Province of New York, one of many protests against the British Parliament's Coercive Acts
1776 American Revolution: The United States Declaration of Independence is adopted by the Second Continental Congress. The United States declared its independence in 1776
1778 American Revolutionary War: American forces under George Clark capture Kaskaskia during the Illinois campaign
1802 At West Point, New York, the United States Military Academy opens
1803 The Louisiana Purchase is announced to the American people
1817 In Rome, New York, construction on the Erie Canal begins
1826 Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, dies the same day as John Adams, second president of the United States, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence
1827 Slavery is abolished in New York State
1831 Samuel Francis Smith writes My Country, 'Tis of Thee for the Boston, Massachusetts July 4 festivities
1837 Grand Junction Railway, the world's first long-distance railway, opens between Birmingham and Liverpool
1838 The Iowa Territory is organized
1855 In Brooklyn, New York City, the first edition of Walt Whitman's book of poems, Leaves of Grass, is published
1862 Lewis Carroll tells Alice Liddell a story that would grow into Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels
1863 American Civil War: Siege of Vicksburg: Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege. One hundred fifty miles up the Mississippi River, a Confederate Army was repulsed at the Battle of Helena, Arkansas
1863 American Civil War: The Army of Northern Virginia withdrew from the battlefield after losing the Battle of Gettysburg, signalling an end to the Southern invasion of the North
1865 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is published
1878 Thoroughbred horses Ten Broeck and Mollie McCarty run a match race, recalled in the song Molly and Tenbrooks
1879 Anglo-Zulu War: The Zululand capital of Ulundi is captured by British troops and burned to the ground, ending the war and forcing King Cetshwayo to flee
1881 In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens
1886 The people of France offer the Statue of Liberty to the people of the United States
1886 The first scheduled Canadian transcontinental train arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia
1887 The founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, joins Sindh-Madrasa-tul-Islam, Karachi
1892 Western Samoa changes the International Date Line, so that year it had 367 days, with two occurrences of Monday, July 4
1894 The short-lived Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by Sanford B. Dole
1903 Philippine–American War officially is concluded
1903 Dorothy Levitt is reported as the first English woman to compete in a 'motor race'
1910 African-American boxer Jack Johnson knocks out white boxer Jim Jeffries in a heavyweight boxing match, sparking race riots across the United States
1911 A massive heat wave strikes the northeastern United States, killing 380 people in eleven days and breaking temperature records in several cities
1913 President Woodrow Wilson addresses American Civil War veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913
1914 The funeral of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie takes place in Vienna, six days after their assassinations in Sarajevo
1918 Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI ascended to the throne
1918 World War I: The Battle of Hamel, a successful attack by the Australian Corps against German positions near the town of Le Hamel on the Western Front
1918 Bolsheviks killed Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family (Julian calendar date)
1926 Knoebels Amusement Resort is opened in Elysburg, Pennsylvania
1927 The Lockheed Vega first flew
1934 Leo Szilard patented the chain-reaction design for the atomic bomb