Born on July 5

465 Ahkal Mo' Naab' I a ruler of the Maya city of Palenque. He ruled from June 5, 501 AD to his death
1029 Al-Mustansir Billah born in Cairo on 16th Jumada II, 420 AH and at the age of only eight months was declared to succeed his father. His name was Ma'd Abu Tamim, surnamed al-Mustansir bil-Lah "The Asker Of Victory From God". He ascended to the Fatimid Caliphate throne on 15th Shaban, 427/June 13, 1036 at the age of 6. During the early years of his Caliphate, the state affairs were administered by his mother. His period of Caliphate lasted for 60 years, the longest of all the caliphs, either in Egypt or elsewhere in Islamic states
1321 Joan of the Tower born in the Tower of London, was the first wife and Queen consort of David II of Scotland.
1413 Musa Çelebi an Ottoman prince and a co-ruler of the empire for three years during Ottoman Interregnum. The name Çelebi is an honorific title meaning gentleman
1487 Johann Gramann a German pastor, theologian, teacher, humanist, reformer, and Lutheran leader.
1500 Paris Bordone an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of mannerist complexity and provincial vigor.
1547 Garzia de' Medici the son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleonora di Toledo. He was the subject of a famous painting by Bronzino when he was an infant. He was born in Florence and died of malaria along with his mother while traveling to Pisa, a few days after his brother Giovanni also died of the disease
1549 Francesco Maria del Monte an Italian Cardinal, diplomat and connoisseur of the arts. His fame today rests on his early patronage of the important Baroque master Caravaggio, and on his art collection which provides provenance for many important works of the period
1554 Elisabeth of Austria Queen of France Queen of France from 1570 to 1574 as the wife of King Charles A member of the House of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria of Spain.
1580 Carlo Contarini the 100th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on March 27, 1655 until his death a little over a year later.
1586 Thomas Hooker a prominent Puritan colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage
1595 Guru Hargobind Har Gobind, also Saccha Padshah. According to another tradition, he was born on 5 July 1595. He was the sixth of the Sikh gurus and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev. He was not, perhaps, more than eleven at his father's execution. Though he waged war against Muslims atrocities all his life, he died peacefully at the age of 48. Most of the historians of Mughal India look at it simplistically from a political angle but the war by several Sikh Gurus against Mughals and their killing by Muslims is a long series of widespread systematic religious persecutions that Hindus and Sikhs suffered at the hands of Muslims Before ascension, he nominated Guru Har Rai, his grandson as the next Guru of the Sikhs
1653 Thomas Pitt a British merchant involved in trade with India.
1670 Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg princess of Neuburg by birth and later Duchess of Parma from 1695 to 1727. She was the sixth daughter of the Elector of the Palatinate, Philip William of Neuburg, and Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt. Three of her sisters were Queen of Spain, Queen of Portugal and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
1673 Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff a Franconian field marshal and diplomat, in the service of the imperial Habsburg monarchy of Austria. Later he served as commander of the Bavarian army and fought Austria
1675 Mary Walcott one of the witnesses at the Salem Witch Trials of Salem, Massachusetts in the years 1692 and 1693.
1704 Jack Broughton an English bare-knuckle boxer. He was the first person to ever codify a set of rules to be used in such contests; prior to this the "rules" that existed were very loosely defined and tended to vary from contest to contest. His seven rules of how boxing would be conducted at his amphitheatre evolved later into the London Prize Ring rules which are widely regarded as the foundation stone of the sport that would become boxing, prior to the development of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in the 1860s
1709 Étienne de Silhouette a French Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV.
1717 Peter III of Portugal became King of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves by the accession of his wife and niece Queen Maria I in 1777, and co-reigned alongside her until his death.
1718 Francis Seymour-Conway 1st Marquess of Hertford a British courtier and politician.
1723 Philip II Count of Schaumburg-Lippe a ruler of the counties of Lippe-Alverdissen and Schaumburg-Lippe.
1735 August Ludwig von Schlözer a German historian who laid foundations for the critical study of Russian history.
1745 Carl Arnold Kortum a German physician, but best known for his writing and poetry.
1750 Aimé Argand a Swiss physicist and chemist. He invented the Argand lamp, a great improvement on the traditional oil lamp
1755 Theodor von Reding born and raised in Switzerland where he commenced his military career. He served in Spain as a governor and general, leading Swiss and Spanish troops against Napoleonic forces and was admired for his leadership and bravery
1755 Sarah Siddons a Welsh-born English actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. She was the elder sister of John Philip Kemble, Charles Kemble, Stephen Kemble, Ann Hatton and Elizabeth Whitlock, and the aunt of Fanny Kemble. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own, and for famously fainting at the sight of the Elgin Marbles in London. The Sarah Siddons Society continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award in Chicago every year to a prominent actress
1761 Louis-Léopold Boilly a French painter and draftsman. A gifted creator of popular portrait paintings, he also produced a vast number of genre paintings vividly documenting French middle-class social life. His life and work spanned the eras of monarchical France, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire, the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy
1764 Sir Thomas Hislop 1st Baronet a senior British Army officer of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Serving exclusively in colonial campaigns, Hislop fought in the West Indies between 1796 and 1810 and subsequently in India, where he was a senior commander during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. Although his ability as a general was praised, Hislop came under criticism in Parliament for his heavy reprisals against forces of the Maratha Empire, particularly at Talnar, where he ordered the execution of over 300 men. He was also known for financial profligacy, losing large sums of money investing unsuccessfully in the Americas. Despite these problems, Hislop was later made a baronet and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, serving in his retirement as an equerry to Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
1764 Daniel Mendoza an English prizefighter, who was boxing champion of England in 1792–1795.
1766 Jean-Pierre Count of Montalivet a French statesman and Peer of France. He was the father of Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet, Minister of the Interior under Louis-Philippe
1767 Georg Friedrich Parrot a German scientist, the first rector of the Imperial University of Dorpat.
1773 Louis I of Etruria the first of only two Kings of Etruria.
1780 François Carlo Antommarchi Napoleon's physician from 1818 to his death in 1821.
1780 François Victor Mérat de Vaumartoise a French physician, botanist and mycologist.
1781 Aizawa Seishisai a Japanese nationalist thinker of the Mito school during the late shogunate period.
1789 Faddey Bulgarin a Russian writer and journalist of Polish, Bulgarian and Albanian ancestry whose self-imposed mission was to popularize the authoritarian policies of Alexander I and Nicholas I.
1791 Samuel Bailey a British philosopher and writer. He was called the "Bentham of Hallamshire"
1793 Pavel Pestel a Russian revolutionary and ideologue of the Decembrists.
1794 Sylvester Graham an American dietary reformer, best known for his emphasis on vegetarianism, the temperance movement, and his invention of graham bread, graham flour and the graham cracker.
1801 David Farragut a flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War. He was the first rear admiral, vice admiral, and admiral in the United States Navy. He is remembered for his order at the Battle of Mobile Bay , usually paraphrased as "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead" in U.S. Navy tradition
1803 George Borrow an English author who wrote novels and travelogues based on his experiences traveling around Europe. Over the course of his wanderings, he developed a close affinity with the Romani people of Europe, who figure prominently in his work. His best known books are The Bible in Spain, the autobiographical Lavengro, and The Romany Rye, about his time with the English Romanichal
1805 Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte a son of Elizabeth Patterson and Jérôme Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I.
1805 Robert FitzRoy a career officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist. He achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's famous voyage, FitzRoy's second expedition to Tierra del Fuego and the Southern Cone. He was a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality and created systems to get weather information to sailors and fishermen for their safety. He was an able surveyor and hydrographer. As Governor of New Zealand, serving from 1843 to 1845, he tried to protect the Maori from illegal land sales claimed by British settlers
1810 P. T. Barnum an American showman and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus. Although Barnum was also an author, publisher, philanthropist, and for some time a politician, he said of himself, "I am a showman by profession...and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me", and his personal aims were "to put money in his own coffers". Barnum is widely, but erroneously, credited with coining the phrase "There's a sucker born every minute"
1817 Karl Vogt a German scientist who emigrated to Switzerland. Vogt published a number of notable works on zoology, geology and physiology. All his life he was engaged in politics, in the German Frankfurt Parliament of 1848–9 and later in Switzerland
1820 William John Macquorn Rankine a Scottish civil engineer, physicist and mathematician. He was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson , to the science of thermodynamics, particularly focusing on the first of the three thermodynamic laws
1829 Ignacio Mariscal an important Mexican writer, diplomat, and politician. He was named Secretary of Foreign Affairs in 1871–72, for the first time during the Benito Juarez administration. During the Porfirio Diaz's government, he held the office in 1880–83 and 1885–1910. In 1909, he was the President of Mexican Academy of the Language
1832 Pavel Chistyakov a Russian painter and teacher of art.
1837 Joachim IV of Constantinople Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1884 to 1887. He was born in 1830, in Kallimasia, Chios
1841 Mary Arthur McElroy the sister of the 21st President of the United States, Chester Arthur, and served as a hostess for his administration. She assumed the role because Arthur's wife, Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur, had died only a year and a half earlier