Born on July 6

371 Cleombrotus I known of Cleombrotus' early life. Son of Pausanias, he became king of Sparta after the death of his brother Agesipolis I in 380 BC, and led the allied Spartan-Peloponnesian army against the Thebans under Epaminondas in the Battle of Leuctra. His death and the utter defeat of his army led to the end of Spartan dominance in ancient Greece. Cleombrotus was succeeded by his son Agesipolis His other son was Cleomenes II
1387 Blanche I of Navarre Queen of Navarre from 1425 to 1441. She became queen regnant upon the death of her father King Charles III of Navarre. She was married twice, but only had surviving issue from her second husband, King John II of Aragon, as her only son by Martin I of Sicily died in early infancy
1404 Yamana Sōzen originally Yamana Mochitoyo before becoming a monk. Due to his red complexion, he was sometimes known as Aka-nyūdō, "the Red Monk". He was one of the daimyo who fought against Hosokawa Katsumoto during the Ōnin War in Kyoto
1473 James III of Cyprus the only and posthumous child by marriage of James II of Cyprus and Catherine Cornaro and King of Cyprus from birth. He died in mysterious circumstances as an infant, leaving his mother as the last Queen of Cyprus. His death paved the way for Venice to gain control of Cyprus
1580 Johann Stobäus a North German composer and lutenist.
1598 Kirsten Munk a Danish noble, the second spouse of King Christian IV of Denmark, and mother to twelve of his children.
1623 Jacopo Melani an Italian composer and violinist of the Baroque era. He was born and died in Pistoia, and was the brother of composer Alessandro Melani and singer Atto Melani
1650 Frederick Casimir Kettler Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1682 to 1698. Frederick Casimir was the son of Jacob Kettler and Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg. In his reign the Duchy lost its geopolitical position and became Sweden, Prussia and Russia's territorial subject of interests
1671 Carmine Caracciolo 5th Prince of Santo Buono Spanish viceroy of Peru from October 5, 1716 to January 26, 1720.
1678 Nicola Francesco Haym an Italian opera librettist, composer, theatre manager and performer, and numismatist. He is best remembered for adapting texts into libretti for the London operas of George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Bononcini. Libretti that he provided for Handel included those for Giulio Cesare, Ottone, Flavio, Tamerlano, Rodelinda, and several others; for Bononcini, he produced two, Calfurnia and Astianatte
1686 Antoine de Jussieu a French naturalist.
1688 Jean Baptiste Loeillet of Ghent a Belgian composer, born in Ghent. He spent the largest part of his life in France in service to the archbishop of Lyon, Paul-François de Neufville de Villeroy. He wrote many works for flute, including trio sonatas, unaccompanied sonatas for 2 flutes, and solo sonatas. He died in Lyons around 1720
1724 Johann Nepomuk Karl Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1732 and 1748. He was the son of Johann Josef Anton
1736 Daniel Morgan an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. One of the most gifted battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War, he later commanded troops during the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion
1744 Infanta Maria Josefa of Spain a Princess of Naples and Sicily by birth. At the accession of her father to the Spanish throne as Charles III, she became an Infanta of Spain. Born and raised in Naples, she arrived in Spain with her family in October 1759, at age fifteen. She lived at the court of her father and later with her brother Charles IV of Spain. She remained unmarried
1747 John Paul Jones a Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. Although he made enemies among America's political elites, his actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to this day. As such, he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the United States Navy". He later served in the Imperial Russian Navy
1755 John Flaxman a British sculptor and draughtsman, and a leading figure in British and European Neoclassicism. Early in his career he worked as a modeller for Josiah Wedgwood's pottery. He spent several years in Rome, where he produced his first book illustrations. He was a prolific maker of funerary monuments
1766 Alexander Wilson a Scottish-American poet, ornithologist, naturalist, and illustrator. Identified by George Ord as the "Father of American Ornithology," Wilson is now regarded as the greatest American ornithologist before Audubon
1768 Johann Georg Heinrich Backofen a German clarinetist, composer and painter.
1778 Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent a French naturalist.
1781 Stamford Raffles a British statesman, best known for his founding of the city of Singapore and the London Zoo. He is often described as the "Father of Singapore" and the "Father of the London Zoo". He was also heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and wrote a book titled The History of Java
1782 Maria Luisa of Spain Duchess of Lucca an Infanta of Spain. She was a daughter of King Carlos IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma. In 1795, age thirteen, she married her first cousin Louis, Hereditary Prince of Parma. She spent the first years of her married life at the Spanish court where her first son, Charles II, Duke of Parma, was born
1785 William Hooker (botanist) an English systematic botanist and organiser, and botanical illustrator. He held the post of Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, and was Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He enjoyed the friendship and support of Sir Joseph Banks for his exploring, collecting and organising work. His son, Joseph Dalton Hooker, succeeded him to the Directorship of Kew Gardens
1789 María Isabella of Spain an Infanta of Spain and Queen of the Two Sicilies.
1794 Wilhelm Hensel a German painter, brother of Luise Hensel, husband to Fanny Mendelssohn, and brother-in-law to Felix Mendelssohn.
1796 Théodore Simon Jouffroy a French philosopher.
1796 Robert Wight a Scottish surgeon and botanist who spent 30 years in India. He studied botany in Edinburgh under John Hope. He was the director of the Botanic Garden in Madras. He made use of local artists to make illustrations of the plants around him. He learned the art of lithography and used it to publish the Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis in six volumes in 1856. He spent the time between 1819-1853 in India and devoted most of that time to the study of plants
1796 Nicholas I of Russia the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He is best known as a reactionary tsar whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853-56. His biographer Nicholas Riasanovsky, says Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier – a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. His reign had an ideology called "Official Nationality" that was proclaimed officially in 1833. It was a reactionary policy based on orthodoxy in religion, autocracy in government, and Russian nationalism
1799 Michael Thomas Bass Jr. a British brewer and member of the British House of Commons. Under his leadership, Bass became the largest brewery in the world and the best known brand in the United Kingdom. Bass represented the Derby constituency in the House of Commons as a member of the Liberal Party between 1847 and 1883 where he was an effective advocate for the brewing industry. He was a generous benefactor of both Derby and Burton upon Trent where his company was based
1805 Heinrich Strack a German architect of the Schinkelschule. His notable works include the Berlin Victory Column
1809 Alexandre Debain a French inventor who developed the harmonium. He made a new action system, in which, when depressing a note on the keyboard, a valve opened thereby emitting sound from the instrument. He patented it in Paris in 1842
1814 Manuel Pavía 1st Marquis of Novaliches y Lacy, 1st Marquis de Novaliches , Spanish marshal.
1815 Louis Pierre Gratiolet a French anatomist and zoologist who was a native of Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He succeeded Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as professor of zoology to the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Paris
1817 Willem Jozef Andreas Jonckbloet a Dutch historian, best known for work on medieval poetry.
1817 Albert von Kölliker a Swiss anatomist and physiologist.
1818 Adolf Anderssen a German chess master. He is considered to have been the world's leading chess player for much of the 1850s and 1860s. He was quite soundly defeated by Paul Morphy who toured Europe in 1858, but Morphy retired from chess soon after and Anderssen was again considered the leading player
1819 Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke a German physician and physiologist. He is credited with contributions made in many facets of physiology
1819 Ignatius Knoblecher a Slovenian Roman Catholic missionary in Central Africa.
1820 Ghevont Alishan an ordained Armenian Catholic priest, historian and a poet. He was awarded by the Legion of Honour of the French Academy , an honorary member of the Asian Society of Italia, Archeological Society of Moscow, Venice Academy and Archeological Society of Saint-Petersburg
1824 Richard Meux Benson a priest in the Church of England and founder of the Society of John the Evangelist, the first religious order of monks in the Anglican Communion since the Reformation. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Anglican Church of Canada on 15 January and of the Episcopal Church on 16 January
1832 Carl Semper a German ethnologist and animal ecologist. He attended the Hanover Polytechnic from 1851-1854 and achieved a Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Würzburg in 1856. He traveled to the Philippines and Palau two years later, staying in the region until 1865 in association with Museum Godeffroy. Semper published several works detailing his observations and experiences among Pacific peoples. In addition to his written work, he delivered lectures at the Lowell Technological Institute near Boston and maintained a large collection of animal specimens. His work in Palau is especially noted as comprising one of the very few reliable accounts of cultural practices that are today severely diminished by Westernization. Semper is also praised for his humane and even-handed attitude toward indigenous cultures
1832 Maximilian I of Mexico the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy, he entered into a scheme with Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico. France had invaded Mexico in 1861, with the implicit support and approval of other European powers, as part of the War of the French Intervention. Seeking to legitimize French rule, Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new Mexican monarchy. With the support of the French army and a group of conservative Mexican monarchists, Maximilian traveled to Mexico where he declared himself Emperor of Mexico on 10 April 1864
1832 August Kluckhohn a German historian, born at Bavenhausen in Lippe. He studied at Heidelberg and Göttingen University, and in 1858 went to Munich to become editor of the criticism portion of Sybel's Historische Zeitschrift. He became an instructor in history at the University of Munich in 1860, in 1865 being promoted to extraordinary professor. In 1869, he was appointed ordinary professor of history at the Polytechnic School in Munich, and in 1883 he went to the University of Göttingen
1835 George White (British Army officer) an officer of the British Army. He was stationed at Peshawar during the Indian Mutiny and then fought at the Battle of Charasiab in October 1879 and at the Battle of Kandahar in September 1880 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. For his bravery during these two battles, he was awarded the Victoria Cross. He went on to command a brigade during the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1886 and became commander of Quetta District in 1889 in which role he led operations in the Zhob Valley and in Balochistan. He was commander of the forces in Natal at the opening of the Second Boer War and fought at the Battle of Elandslaagte in October 1899. He commanded the garrison at the Siege of Ladysmith: although instructed by General Sir Redvers Buller to surrender the garrison he responded "I hold Ladysmith for the Queen" and held out for another four months before being relieved in February 1900. He finished his career as Governor of Gibraltar and then as Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea
1837 Władysław Żeleński (musician) a Polish composer, pianist and organist.
1837 R. G. Bhandarkar an Indian scholar, orientalist, and social reformer.
1838 Vatroslav Jagić a prominent Croatian scholar of Slavic studies in the second half of the 19th century.
1840 José María Velasco Gómez a 19th-century Mexican painter who made Mexican geography a symbol of national identity through his paintings. He was one of the most popular artists of the time and received many distinctions such as the gold medal of National Expositions of Bellas Artes in 1874 and 1876, the gold medal of the Philadelphia International Exposition in 1876 and the medal of the Paris' Universal Exposition in 1889. His painting El valle de México is considered Velasco's masterpiece
1841 Leopold Kny a German botanist born in Breslau.
1843 Ludwig Beissner a German horticulturalist and dendrologist born in Ludwigslust, Mecklenburg-Schwerin.