Born on July 7

1053 Emperor Shirakawa the 72nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1119 Emperor Sutoku the 75th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1207 Elizabeth of Hungary a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany and a greatly venerated Catholic saint. Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20. After her husband's death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was quickly canonized
1268 Reniero Zeno the 45th Doge of Venice, reigning from January 1, 1253 until his death in 1268.
1418 Peter II Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany, Count of Montfort and titular earl of Richmond, from 1450 to his death. He was son of Duke John VI and Joan of France, and thus was younger brother of Francis I
1482 Andrzej Krzycki a Renaissance Polish writer and archbishop. Krzycki wrote in Latin prose, but wrote poetry in Polish. He is often considered one of Poland's greatest humanist writers
1540 John Sigismund Zápolya King of Hungary from 1540 to 1551 and again from 1556 to 1570. He reigned over the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom", as historians call the area which recognized as King his father and then him, instead of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, who ruled western Hungary
1585 Thomas Howard 21st Earl of Arundel a prominent English courtier during the reigns of King James I and King Charles I, but he made his name as a Grand Tourist and art collector rather than as a politician. When he died he possessed 700 paintings, along with large collections of sculpture, books, prints, drawings, and antique jewellery. Most of his collection of marble carvings, known as the Arundel marbles, was eventually left to the University of Oxford
1616 John Leverett an English colonial magistrate, merchant, soldier and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Born in England, he came to Massachusetts as a teenager. He was a leading merchant in the colony, and served in its military. In the 1640s he went back to England to fight in the English Civil War
1690 Johann Tobias Krebs a German organist and composer.
1752 Joseph Marie Jacquard a French weaver and merchant. He played an important role in the development of the earliest programmable loom , which in turn played an important role in the development of other programmable machines, such as computers
1766 Guillaume Philibert Duhesme a French general during the Napoleonic Wars.
1770 Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel a Spanish General and statesman. He was born in the Basque Country of Spain, at Vitoria-Gasteiz, in 1770. Álava holds the distinction of having been present at both Trafalgar and Waterloo, fighting against the British on the former and with them on the latter. Alava served as a naval aide-de-camp during the time of Spain's alliance with France but switched sides following Napoleon's invasion of his homeland in 1808. Later he joined the headquarters of the British Peninsular Army as a military attaché and became a close friend of the Duke of Wellington. During the Waterloo Campaign in 1815, Alava was the Spanish envoy to the court of King William I of the Netherlands, which allowed him to be at Wellington's side during the battle
1771 Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark the daughter of Queen Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. Though officially regarded as the daughter of King Christian VII, it is widely accepted that her biological father was Johann Friedrich Struensee, the king’s royal physician and de facto regent of the country at the time of her birth. She was referred to sometimes as "la petite Struensee"; this did not, however, have any effect on her position
1784 Wilibald Swibert Joseph Gottlieb von Besser an Austrian-born botanist who worked most of his life within the territory of western Ukraine.
1795 Prince Karl Theodor of Bavaria a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He was the second son and fifth child of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt
1804 Lord William Paulet a senior British Army officer. During the Crimean War he served as Assistant Adjutant-General of the Cavalry Division, under Lord Lucan, at the Battle of Alma in September 1854, at the Battle of Balaklava in October 1854 and at the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854 as well as at the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War. He was then given command of the rear area, including the Bosphorus, Gallipoli and the Dardanelles before returning to England. He later became Commander of the 1st Brigade at Aldershot in 1856, General Officer Commanding South-West District in 1860 and finally Adjutant-General to the Forces in 1865
1806 Michele Amari an Italian patriot and historian.
1816 Rudolf Wolf a Swiss astronomer and mathematician best known for his research on sunspots.
1823 Domenico Morelli an Italian painter, who mainly produced historical and religious works. Morelli was immensely influential in the arts of the second half of the 19th century, both as director of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples, but also because of his rebelliousness against institutions: traits that flourished into the passionate, often patriotic, Romantic and later Symbolist subjects of his canvases
1823 John Kells Ingram an economist and poet.
1824 Alfred Pleasonton a United States Army officer and General of Union cavalry during the American Civil War. He commanded the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac during the Gettysburg Campaign, including the largest predominantly cavalry battle of the war, Brandy Station. In 1864, he was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi Theater, where he defeated Confederate General Sterling Price in two key battles, effectively ending the war in Missouri. He was the son of Stephen Pleasonton and younger brother of Augustus Pleasonton
1825 Friedrich Karl Theodor Zarncke born at Zahrensdorf, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the son of a country pastor.
1827 Quintino Sella an Italian statesman and financier.
1832 Johannes Engelmann a Baltic German jurist.
1833 Félicien Rops a Belgian artist, known primarily as a printmaker in etching and aquatint.
1838 Gustav Bickell a German orientalist. He was born in Kassel, and died in Vienna
1839 Princess Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg a daughter of Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Princess Feodora of Leiningen. By her marriage to Georg of Saxe-Meiningen, she would become Duchess consort of Saxe-Meiningen upon his succession in 1866
1843 Camillo Golgi an Italian physician, pathologist, scientist, and Nobel laureate. Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon organ, and the Golgi tendon reflex
1846 Heinrich Rosenthal an Estonian nationalist leader, doctor and author.
1848 Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves a Brazilian politician who first served as governor of the State of São Paulo in 1887, then as Treasury minister in the 1890s. Rodrigues Alves was elected President of Brazil in 1902 and served until 1906
1851 Charles Albert Tindley Rev. Charles Albert Tindley was an American Methodist minister and gospel music composer
1852 Vera Figner a Russian revolutionary and narodnik born in Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire, into a well-to-do Jewish family.
1853 Albert Vandal a French historian, born in Paris. He wrote:
1854 Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov a Russian revolutionary who spent about 25 years in prison before turning his attention to various fields of science.
1854 Max Kretzer a German writer. He left school at the age of thirteen and worked in a factory for twelve years. He became a prolific and successful novelist in the social realist style, depicting common working people
1855 Ludwig Ganghofer a German writer who became famous for his homeland novels.
1855 Artur Azevedo a Brazilian playwright, short story writer, chronicler, journalist and Parnassian poet. He is famous for consolidating in Brazil the "comedy of manners" genre, initiated by Martins Pena
1856 Georg von der Marwitz a Prussian cavalry general, who commanded several German armies during the First World War on both the Eastern and Western fronts.
1860 Abraham Cahan a Belarusian-born Jewish-American socialist newspaper editor, novelist, and politician.
1860 Alexander Alexanderovich Lieven a vice admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy.
1860 Gustav Mahler a late-Romantic composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He was born to a Jewish family in the village of Kalischt in Bohemia, in what was then the Austrian Empire, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic. His family later moved to nearby Iglau , where Mahler grew up
1861 Nettie Stevens an early American geneticist. She and Edmund Beecher Wilson were the first researchers to describe the chromosomal basis of sex
1862 Ludwig Fulda a German playwright and a poet with a strong social commitment. He lived with Moritz Moszkowski's first wife Henriette, née Chaminade, younger sister of pianist and composer Cecile Chaminade
1863 Marguerite Audoux a French novelist.
1868 Frank Bunker Gilbreth Sr. perhaps best known as the father and central figure of Cheaper by the Dozen.
1872 Charles Crichton (sailor) a British sailor who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.
1873 Sándor Ferenczi a Hungarian psychoanalyst, a key theorist of the psychoanalytic school and a close associate of Sigmund Freud.
1873 Halvdan Koht a Norwegian historian and politician representing the Labor Party.
1874 Erwin Bumke the last president of the Reichsgericht, Germany's old Imperial Court.