Died on July 7

303 Procopius of Scythopolis venerated as an early martyr and saint. Eusebius of Caesarea writes of his martyrdom, which occurred during the persecution of Diocletian, and states that “he was born at Jerusalem, but had gone to live in Scythopolis, where he held three ecclesiastical offices. He was reader and interpreter in the Syriac language, and cured those possessed of evil spirits.” Eusebius writes that Procopius was sent with his companions from Scythopolis to Caesarea Maritima, where he was decapitated
1059 Abdallah ibn Yasin a theologian and founder of the Almoravid movement and dynasty.
1162 Haakon II of Norway King of Norway from 1157 until 1162 during the Civil war era in Norway.
1223 Ibn Qudamah considered, along with Ibn Taymiyyah, as one of the two most significant proponents of Hanbalism; in the modern era, adherents of the school often refer to the two as "the two sheikhs and Sheikh ul-Islam.
1304 Pope Benedict XI Pope from 22 October 1303 to his death in 1304.
1307 Edward I of England King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward left on a crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August
1345 Momchil a 14th-century Bulgarian brigand and local ruler. Initially a member of a bandit gang in the borderlands of Bulgaria, Byzantium and Serbia, Momchil was recruited by the Byzantines as a mercenary. Through his opportunistic involvement in the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, where he played the various sides against each other, he became ruler of a large area in the Rhodopes and western Thrace
1472 Battista Sforza the Duchess of Urbino and second wife of Federico da Montefeltro.
1531 Tilman Riemenschneider a German sculptor and woodcarver active in Würzburg from 1483. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the transition period between late Gothic and Renaissance, a master in stone and limewood
1537 Madeleine of Valois a French princess who became Queen of Scots as the first spouse of King James V.
1572 Sigismund II Augustus King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. Married three times, the last of the Jagiellons remained childless, and through the Union of Lublin introduced an elective monarchy
1573 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome. The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio
1588 Sassa Narimasa a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku through Azuchi-Momoyama period. Narimasa was born in what is now Nishi-ku, Nagoya , He became a retainer of Oda Nobunaga in 1550 and was granted Etchū Province as a reward for helping Shibata Katsuie fight the Uesugi clan. After Nobunaga's death, in 1584 he joined Tokugawa Ieyasu in unsuccessfully challenging Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He submitted to Hideyoshi and was spared his life. In 1587, he was given a fief in Higo Province in Kyushu. However, due to difficulties in suppressing a local revolt, he committed suicide by Hideyoshi's instruction in 1588. His daughter married kuge Takatsukasa Nobufusa and they had a son Nobuhisa
1593 Mohammed Bagayogo an eminent scholar from Timbuktu, Mali. He was the Sheik and professor of highly esteemed scholar, Ahmed Baba and teacher at the Sankore Madrasah, one of three philosophical schools in Mali during West Africa's golden age ; the other two were Sidi Yahya University and Jingaray Ber university. He was born in Djenné in 1523. A significant amount of his writings has been preserved in manuscript form in Institute Ahmed Baba of Tombouctou, a repository for African literature. Some of the manuscripts found their way into French museums. A project is under way to digitalise these manuscripts which will lead to better understanding of the culture that flourished in Mali in the medieval period
1602 Friedrich Wilhelm I Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar. He was the eldest son of Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Dorothea Susanne of Simmern
1607 Penelope Blount Countess of Devonshire an English noblewoman. She was the sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and is traditionally thought to be the inspiration for "Stella" of Sir Philip Sidney's Astrophel and Stella sonnet sequence. She married Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich and had a public liaison with Charles Blount, Baron Mountjoy, , whom she married in an unlicensed ceremony following her divorce from Rich. She died in 1607
1621 Achyuta Pisharati a Sanskrit grammarian, astrologer, astronomer and mathematician who studied under Jyeṣṭhadeva and was a member of Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. He is remembered mainly for his part in the composition of his student Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri's devotional poem, Narayaneeyam
1633 Lew Sapieha a noble and statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He became Great Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1580, Great Clerk of the Grand Duchy in 1581, Court Chancellor of the GDL in 1585, Grand Chancellor of the GDL from 1589 until 1623, Voivode of Vilnius in 1621, Great Lithuanian Hetman in 1623 and starost of Slonim, Brest and Mogilev. He was of Ruthenian ethnicity, however, modern Belarusian sources interpret his Ruthenian heritage as Belarusian
1647 Thomas Hooker a prominent Puritan colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage
1683 Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel the daughter of William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg a sister of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg.
1689 Princess Louise of Savoy a Savoyard Princess by birth. She was the mother of Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden, the famous chief commander of the Imperial army
1700 Silvestro Valiero the 109th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on 25 February 1694 until his death six years later. The Morean War between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire, which had been ongoing since 1684, came to an end during Valiero's reign as Doge, in January 1699
1701 William Stoughton (Massachusetts) a colonial magistrate and administrator in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. He was in charge of what have come to be known as the Salem Witch Trials, first as the Chief Justice of the Special Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692, and then as the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature in 1693. In these trials he controversially accepted spectral evidence. Unlike other magistrates, he never admitted to the possibility that his acceptance of such evidence was in error
1713 Henry Compton (bishop) the Bishop of London from 1675 to 1713.
1730 Johann Christian Buxbaum a German physician, botanist and traveller.
1730 Olivier Levasseur a pirate, nicknamed La Buse or La Bouche in his early days, called thus because of the speed and ruthlessness with which he always attacked his enemies.
1764 William Pulteney 1st Earl of Bath sometimes stated to have been Prime Minister, for the shortest term ever , though most modern sources reckon that he cannot be considered to have held the office.
1769 James Hamilton 7th Duke of Hamilton a short-lived Scottish peer.
1770 Suzuki Harunobu a Japanese designer of woodblock print artist in the Ukiyo-e style. He was an innovator, the first to produce full-color prints in 1765, rendering obsolete the former modes of two- and three-color prints. Harunobu used many special techniques, and depicted a wide variety of subjects, from classical poems to contemporary beauties. Like many artists of his day, Harunobu also produced a number of shunga, or erotic images. During his lifetime and shortly afterwards, many artists imitated his style. A few, such as Harushige, even boasted of their ability to forge the work of the great master. Much about Harunobu's life is unknown
1776 Jeremiah Markland an English classical scholar.
1785 Stanislaus Czerniewicz a Lithuanian-Polish Jesuit priest. Rector of the Jesuit college of Polotsk when the Society of Jesus was suppressed he was elected vicar general for the Jesuits in Russia in 1782
1790 François Hemsterhuis a Dutch writer on aesthetics and moral philosophy.
1793 Maria Antonia Branconi the official royal mistress of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between 1766 and 1777. She was a friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Branconi was by her contemporaries known as the most beautiful woman in Germany
1799 William Curtis an English botanist and entomologist, who was born at Alton, Hampshire.
1809 Yakov Bulgakov a Russian diplomat best remembered as Catherine II's emissary in Constantinople in the 1780s.
1816 Richard Brinsley Sheridan an Irish playwright and poet and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He is known for his plays such as The Rivals, The School for Scandal and A Trip to Scarborough. For thirty-two years he was also a Whig Member of the British House of Commons for Stafford , Westminster and Ilchester. He was buried at Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey
1826 Friedrich Dülon one of the most prominent and famous flute-virtuoso musicians of the classical era, being one of the first flutists to be considered gifted on flute. At the age of 40 he had acquired more than 300 concerts in his repertoire. Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart devoted a 9-verse poem entitled The blind flute player Dülon on the journey.d
1829 Jacob Friedrich von Abel a German philosopher. His main interest was the human soul and in trying to find a proof for its immortality
1829 Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley a French Navy officer, best known for commanding the vanguard of the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar.
1837 Josef Eduard Teltscher an Austrian painter and lithographer. He was one of the best Viennese portrait lithographers and watercolourists of the first half of the nineteenth century in Central Europe, and as a miniaturist, according to his contemporaries, he was an no less than Moritz Daffinger himself
1840 Nikolai Stankevich a Russian public figure, philosopher, and poet.
1850 Carl Rottmann a German landscape painter and the most famous member of the Rottmann family of painters.
1856 Princess Pauline of Württemberg (1810–1856) a member of the House of Württemberg and a Princess of Württemberg by birth. Through her marriage to William, Duke of Nassau, Louise was also a member of the House of Nassau-Weilburg and Duchess consort of Nassau. Pauline is an ancestor of the present Belgian, Danish, British, Dutch, Luxembourg, Norwegian, and Swedish Royal families
1862 Friedrich Gauermann born at Miesenbach near Gutenstein in Lower Austria. He was an early representative of the Veristic style devoted to nature in all its diversity
1863 William Mulready an Irish genre painter living in London. He is best known for his romanticizing depictions of rural scenes, and for creating Mulready stationery letter sheets, issued at the same time as the Penny Black postage stamp
1865 Lewis Powell (conspirator) one of the conspirators in league with John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Abraham Lincoln. He failed in his attempt to assassinate Secretary of State William Seward on the same night
1866 Adolph Diesterweg said to be precursory to the reform of pedagogy.
1867 François Ponsard a French dramatist, poet and author and was a member of the Académie française.
1879 George Caleb Bingham an American artist whose paintings of American life in the frontier lands along the Missouri River exemplify the Luminist style. Left to languish in obscurity, Bingham's work was rediscovered in the 1930s. By the time of his bicentennial in 2011, he was considered one of the greatest American painters of the 19th century. That year the George Caleb Bingham Catalogue Raisonné Supplement Of Paintings & Drawings announced the authentication of ten recently discovered paintings by Bingham; like all but about 5% of his works, they are unsigned
1882 Mikhail Skobelev a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Dressed in white uniform and mounted on a white horse, and always in the thickest of the fray, he was known and adored by his soldiers as the "White General". During a campaign in Khiva, his Turkmen opponents called him goz zanli or "Bloody Eyes". British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery wrote that Skobelev was the world's "ablest single commander" between 1870 and 1914 and called him a "skilful and inspiring" leader