Born on July 9

1169 Guido of Pisa a geographer from Pisa. In 1119 he edited and updated the Geographica, a geographic encyclopedia first created in the eighth century by Anonymous of Ravenna. It followed in the tradition of earlier geographies, such as Strabo's Geographica, Pomponius Mela's De situ orbis, Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, and the Antonine Itinerary. Guido's book included text, as well as maps of Italy and the world as it was known to the Romans. It also included the only known text of the Carmen in victoriam Pisanorum. His map of the Western Roman Empire contains the inscription Carantano, which is probably the first cartographical mention of the Slovene territory
1249 Emperor Kameyama the 90th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1259 through 1274
1511 Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg consort of Christian III from 1525 and Queen consort of Denmark and Norway. She was daughter of Duke Magnus I of Saxe-Lauenburg and Catherine, daughter of Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Her sister Catherine was the first consort of Gustav I of Sweden
1526 Elizabeth of Austria (1526–1545) the eldest of fifteen children of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. A member of the House of Habsburg, she was married off to Sigismund II Augustus, who was already crowned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania even though both of his parents were still alive and well. The marriage was short and unhappy. Elizabeth was of frail health, suffering from epileptic seizures, and died at age 18
1566 John Ernest Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach and later of Saxe-Coburg.
1577 Thomas West 3rd Baron De La Warr the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, a Native American people and U.S. state, all later called "Delaware", were named. "De La Warr" is pronounced "Delaware"
1578 Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor , King of Bohemia , and King of Hungary. His rule coincided with the Thirty Years' War
1583 John Prince of Schleswig-Holstein the youngest son of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway and Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He went to Russia in 1602 as the bridegroom of Boris Godunov's daughter Ksenia , but fell ill and died before the marriage could take place
1653 Emperor Reigen the 112th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1686 Philip Livingston (1686–1749) the son of Robert Livingston the Elder, and elder brother of Robert Livingston of Clermont. Philip was the second Lord of Livingston Manor, a merchant, and slave trader
1689 Alexis Piron a French epigrammatist and dramatist.
1701 Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux Count of Maurepas a French statesman.
1713 John Newbery an English publisher of books who first made children's literature a sustainable and profitable part of the literary market. He also supported and published the works of Christopher Smart, Oliver Goldsmith and Samuel Johnson. In honor of his achievements in children's publishing, the Newbery Medal was named after him
1721 Johann Nikolaus Götz a German poet from Worms.
1752 Evan Nepean a British politician and colonial administrator. He was the first of the Nepean Baronets
1753 William Waldegrave 1st Baron Radstock the Governor of Newfoundland and an Admiral in the Royal Navy.
1764 Louis-Pierre Baltard a French architect, and engraver.
1764 Ann Radcliffe an English author and pioneer of the Gothic novel. Her style is Romantic in its vivid descriptions of landscapes and long travel scenes, yet the Gothic element is obvious through her use of the supernatural. It was her technique " the explained supernatural," the final revelation of inexplicable phenomena, that helped the Gothic novel achieve respectability in the 1790s
1766 Johanna Schopenhauer a German author. She is today known primarily for being the mother of Arthur Schopenhauer
1769 Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne a French diplomat.
1775 Matthew Lewis (writer) an English novelist and dramatist, often referred to as "Monk" Lewis, because of the success of his 1796 Gothic novel, The Monk.
1777 Henry Hallam an English historian.
1781 Nikita Volkonsky a Russian general from the Volkonsky family. He took part in the Napoleonic wars and later converted from Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism
1786 Rudolph Schadow a German sculptor.
1786 Princess Sophie Hélène Béatrice of France the daughter of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI of France.
1802 Thomas Davenport (inventor) a Vermont blacksmith who constructed the first American DC electric motor in 1834.
1802 Yegor Tolstoy a Russian lieutenant-general, senator, and governor of Taganrog, Kaluga and Penza.
1805 József Szén a Hungarian chess master.
1807 Adolf Friedrich Stenzler a German Indologist born in Wolgast.
1808 Alexander William Doniphan best known today as the man who prevented the summary execution of Mormon founder Joseph Smith, at the close of the 1838 Mormon War in that state. He also achieved renown as a leader of American troops during the Mexican–American War, as the author of a legal code that still forms the basis of New Mexico's Bill of Rights, and as a successful defense attorney in the Missouri towns of Liberty, Richmond and Independence
1809 Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle a German physician, pathologist, and anatomist. He is credited with the discovery of the loop of Henle in the kidney. His essay, "On Miasma and Contagia," was an early argument for the germ theory of disease. He was an important figure in the development of modern medicine
1815 Oran Milo Roberts the 17th Governor of Texas from January 21, 1879 to January 16, 1883. He was a member of the Democratic Party. Roberts County, Texas, is named after him
1819 Elias Howe an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer.
1823 Henryk Rodakowski a Polish painter.
1823 Phineas Gage an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable:19 survival of a rock-blasting accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining twelve years of his life—​effects so profound that friends saw him as "no longer Gage.".
1825 Julius Oppert born at Hamburg, of Jewish parents.
1828 Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano a cardinal of the Catholic Church in the late nineteenth century. He was Bishop of Ostia e Velletri and Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals from 1896 until his death
1828 Adolf Schreyer a German painter, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.
1831 Wilhelm His Sr. a Swiss anatomist and professor who invented the microtome. By treating animal flesh with acids and salts to harden it and then slicing it very thinly with the microtome, scientists were able to further research the organization and function of tissues and cells in a microscope
1833 Joaquim de Sousa Andrade a Brazilian poet, adept of the "Condorist" movement. His poetry, exceedingly innovative for the time it was published, is now considered an early example of Symbolism and Modernism in Brazil
1833 Josipina Turnograjska one of the first Slovene female writers, poets, and composers.
1834 Jan Neruda a Czech journalist, writer and poet, one of the most prominent representatives of Czech Realism and a member of "the May school".
1835 Tomás Estrada Palma a Cuban political figure. He served as the first President of Cuba between 1902 and 1906
1835 Seyid Azim Shirvani Azerbaijani poet and enlightener. He got his first religious education in Iraq. After returning to motherland he refused his spiritual dignity and opened a private school. Seyid Azim Shirvani continued Fuzûlî’s traditions in his love-lyrical poems. In his satirical poems and fables Seyid Azim Shirvani ridiculed priesthood, opposed backwardness and ignorance, called to enlightenment and culture. Contemporary poets consider him their teacher
1835 William D. Bloxham an American politician. He served as the 13th and 17th Governor of Florida in two non-consecutive terms. Prior to his first term as governor, he served in the Florida House of Representatives
1836 Camille of Renesse-Breidbach a Belgian nobleman, entrepreneur and author.
1836 Sophia of Nassau Queen consort of Sweden and Norway. Sophia was Queen of Sweden for 35 years, longer than any other Swedish queen before her. She was the longest serving queen until 2011 when she was surpassed by Queen Silvia. She is also the latest Queen of Sweden to have held the official title of Dowager Queen of Sweden
1842 Clara Louise Kellogg an American singer.
1845 George Darwin an English astronomer and mathematician.
1845 Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound 4th Earl of Minto a British nobleman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.