July 9 events in history

455 The Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
491 Odoacer makes a night assault with his Heruli guardsmen, engaging Theoderic the Great in Ad Pinetam. Both sides suffer heavy losses, but in the end Theodoric forces Odoacer back into Ravenna
660 Battle of Hwangsanbeol: Korean forces under general Kim Yu-shin defeat the army of Baekje at Nonsan (South Korea)
869 A magnitude 8.6Ms earthquake and subsequent tsunami strikes the area around Sendai in the northern part of Honshu, Japan
1357 Emperor Charles IV assists in laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague
1386 The Old Swiss Confederacy makes great strides in establishing control over its territory by soundly defeating the Archduchy of Austria in the Battle of Sempach
1540 King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves
1572 Nineteen Catholics suffer martyrdom for their beliefs in the Dutch town of Gorkum
1701 War of the Spanish Succession: Austrians defeat France in the Battle of Carpi
1745 War of the Austrian Succession: French victory in the Battle of Melle allows them to capture Ghent in the days after
1755 French and Indian War: Braddock Expedition – British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed and suffer a devastating defeat by French and Native American forces
1776 George Washington orders the Declaration of Independence to be read out loud to members of the Continental Army in New York, New York, for the first time
1789 In Versailles, the National Assembly reconstitutes itself as the National Constituent Assembly and begins preparations for a French constitution
1790 Russo-Swedish War: Second Battle of Svensksund – in the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captures one third of the Russian fleet
1793 The Act Against Slavery is passed in Upper Canada and the importation of slaves into Lower Canada is prohibited
1807 The Treaties of Tilsit are signed by Napoleon I of France and Alexander I of Russia
1810 Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland as part of the First French Empire
1811 Explorer David Thompson posts a sign at the confluence of the Columbia and Snake Rivers (in modern Washington state, US), claiming the land for the United Kingdom
1815 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord becomes the first Prime Minister of France
1816 Argentina declares independence from Spain
1821 Four hundred seventy prominent Cypriots including Archbishop Kyprianos are executed in response to Cypriot aid to the Greek War of Independence
1850 U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore succeeds him as 13th President of the United States
1850 Persian prophet Báb is executed in Tabriz, Persia
1863 American Civil War: The Siege of Port Hudson ends
1868 The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law
1875 Outbreak of the Herzegovina Uprising against Ottoman rule, which would last until 1878 and have far-reaching implications throughout the Balkans
1877 The inaugural Wimbledon Championships begins
1896 William Jennings Bryan delivers his Cross of Gold speech advocating bimetallism at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
1900 Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom gives Royal Assent to an Act creating Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under one federal government
1900 Boxer Rebellion: The Governor of Shanxi province in North China orders the execution of 45 foreign Christian missionaries and local church members, including children
1903 Future Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin is exiled to Siberia for three years
1918 Great Train Wreck of 1918: In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history
1922 Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking the world swimming record and the 'minute barrier'
1932 The state of São Paulo revolts against the Brazilian Federal Government, starting the Constitutionalist Revolution
1943 World War II: Operation Husky – Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily
1944 World War II: Battle of Normandy – British and Canadian forces capture Caen, France
1944 World War II: Battle of Saipan – American forces take Saipan in the Mariana Islands
1944 World War II: Battle of Tali-Ihantala – Finland wins the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in northern Europe. The Red Army withdraws its troops from Ihantala and digs into a defensive position, thus ending the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive
1955 The Russell–Einstein Manifesto is released by Bertrand Russell in London, England, United Kingdom
1958 Lituya Bay is hit by a megatsunami. The wave is recorded at 30 to 91 meters high, the largest in recorded history
1961 Turkish voters approve the Turkish Constitution of 1961 in a referendum
1962 The Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test is conducted by the United States
1962 Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans exhibition opens at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles
1972 The Troubles: In Belfast, British Army snipers shoot five civilians dead in the Springhill Massacre
1979 A car bomb destroys a Renault motor car owned by the famed "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility
1981 Donkey Kong, a video game created by Nintendo, is released. The game marks the debut of Nintendo's future mascot, Mario
1986 The Parliament of New Zealand passes the Homosexual Law Reform Act legalising homosexuality in New Zealand
1993 The Parliament of Canada passes the Nunavut Act leading to the 1999 creation of Nunavut, dividing the Northwest Territories into arctic (Inuit) and sub-arctic (Dene) lands based on a plebiscite
1999 Days of student protests begin after Iranian police and hardliners attack a student dormitory at the University of Tehran
2011 South Sudan gains independence and secedes from Sudan